Avian influenza

Common Name(s)

Avian influenza, Avian flu, Bird flu

Bird flu or avian influenza is an infection caused by different strains of avian influenza A virus. This virus infects wild water birds, but sometimes is passed to farm birds such as chicken, turkeys or ducks. The virus makes the farm birds very sick and many die. Sometimes the virus changes or mutates and spreads to people. The most common strains seen in humans include H5N1 and H7N9. H5N1 can cause serious illness and has a high death rate among humans. The virus strains are present worldwide but are more common in Asia, Europe, the Pacific, Near East and Africa. Only about 700 people have had the bird flu caused by H5N1. There have been no reported cases of the virus causing illness in people in the United States. The first reported case of a human infected by H5N1 was reported in 2014 in Canada.

Infections are caused by contact with sick or dead poultry infected with the virus. Infections do not normally spread between people, but there are a few cases where it has happened. Medical scientists worry that during an outbreak of bird flu, the virus may change or mutate so that it can be passed from human to human. This will cause the bird flu to spread much more rapidly over much larger areas.

Symptoms of bird flu in humans depends on which strain caused the infection. Some only cause mild illness while other strains like H5N1 can be very serious. In general symptoms may include fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, abdominal pain, diarrhea, pneumonia, and difficulty breathing. Diagnosis requires special lab tests. The best prevention is to avoid contact with sick or dead birds especially in areas with a known outbreak. Poultry and eggs should be properly cooked before eating. Treatment may include antiviral medications and supportive therapy. If you work with farm birds or come into contact with dead birds and develop flu symptoms, talk with your doctor about the most current testing and treatment options.

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Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Avian influenza" for support, advocacy or research.

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Avian influenza" returned 987 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Scoring Amino Acid Mutations to Predict Avian-to-Human Transmission of Avian Influenza Viruses.
 

Author(s): Xiaoli Qiang, Zheng Kou, Gang Fang, Yanfeng Wang

Journal:

 

Avian influenza virus (AIV) can directly cross species barriers and infect humans with high fatality. Using machine learning methods, the present paper scores the amino acid mutations and predicts interspecies transmission. Initially, 183 signature positions in 11 viral proteins were ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Patient-derived avian influenza A (H5N6) virus is highly pathogenic in mice but can be effectively treated by anti-influenza polyclonal antibodies.
 

Author(s): Weiqi Pan, Haojun Xie, Xiaobo Li, Wenda Guan, Peihai Chen, Beiwu Zhang, Mincong Zhang, Ji Dong, Qian Wang, Zhixia Li, Shufen Li, Zifeng Yang, Chufang Li, Nanshan Zhong, Jicheng Huang, Ling Chen

Journal:

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N6) virus has been circulating in poultry since 2013 and causes sporadic infections and fatalities in humans. Due to the re-occurrence and continuous evolution of this virus subtype, there is an urgent need to better understand the pathogenicity ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Pandemic Avian Influenza and Intra/Interhaemagglutinin Subtype Electrostatic Variation among Viruses Isolated from Avian, Mammalian, and Human Hosts.
 

Author(s): Irene Righetto, Francesco Filippini

Journal:

 

Host jump can result in deadly pandemic events when avian influenza A viruses broaden their host specificity and become able to infect mammals, including humans. Haemagglutinin-the major capsid protein in influenza A viruses-is subjected to high rate mutations, of which several occur ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Avian influenza" returned 88 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Challenge for One Health: Co-Circulation of Zoonotic H5N1 and H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses in Egypt.
 

Author(s): Shin-Hee Kim

Journal:

 

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control strategies among other preventive measures. The viruses have evolved rapidly with ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Molecular Markers for Interspecies Transmission of Avian Influenza Viruses in Mammalian Hosts.
 

Author(s): Khristine Kaith S Lloren, Taehyung Lee, Jin Jung Kwon, Min-Suk Song

Journal:

 

In the last decade, a wide range of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) have infected various mammalian hosts and continuously threaten both human and animal health. It is a result of overcoming the inter-species barrier which is mostly associated with gene reassortment and accumulation ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Current situation of H9N2 subtype avian influenza in China.
 

Author(s): Min Gu, Lijun Xu, Xiaoquan Wang, Xiufan Liu

Journal:

 

In China, H9N2 subtype avian influenza outbreak is firstly reported in Guangdong province in 1992. Subsequently, the disease spreads into vast majority regions nationwide and has currently become endemic there. Over vicennial genetic evolution, the viral pathogenicity and transmissibility ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

A Clinical Trail Of An Adjuvanted Inactivated H7N9 Influenza Vaccine
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: H7N9 Influenza

 

Last Updated: 18 Apr 2018

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Sanofi 2017 H7N9 With/Without AS03 in Adults/Elderly
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Avian Influenza; Influenza Immunisation

 

Last Updated: 13 Jul 2018

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Seqirus 2017 H7N9 With/Without MF59 (R) in Healthy Males and Non-pregnant Females, 18-64 Years of Age.
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Avian Influenza; Influenza Immunisation

 

Last Updated: 18 Oct 2018

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