Avian influenza

Common Name(s)

Avian influenza, Avian flu, Bird flu

Bird flu or avian influenza is an infection caused by different strains of avian influenza A virus. This virus infects wild water birds, but sometimes is passed to farm birds such as chicken, turkeys or ducks. The virus makes the farm birds very sick and many die. Sometimes the virus changes or mutates and spreads to people. The most common strains seen in humans include H5N1 and H7N9. H5N1 can cause serious illness and has a high death rate among humans. The virus strains are present worldwide but are more common in Asia, Europe, the Pacific, Near East and Africa. Only about 700 people have had the bird flu caused by H5N1. There have been no reported cases of the virus causing illness in people in the United States. The first reported case of a human infected by H5N1 was reported in 2014 in Canada.

Infections are caused by contact with sick or dead poultry infected with the virus. Infections do not normally spread between people, but there are a few cases where it has happened. Medical scientists worry that during an outbreak of bird flu, the virus may change or mutate so that it can be passed from human to human. This will cause the bird flu to spread much more rapidly over much larger areas.

Symptoms of bird flu in humans depends on which strain caused the infection. Some only cause mild illness while other strains like H5N1 can be very serious. In general symptoms may include fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, abdominal pain, diarrhea, pneumonia, and difficulty breathing. Diagnosis requires special lab tests. The best prevention is to avoid contact with sick or dead birds especially in areas with a known outbreak. Poultry and eggs should be properly cooked before eating. Treatment may include antiviral medications and supportive therapy. If you work with farm birds or come into contact with dead birds and develop flu symptoms, talk with your doctor about the most current testing and treatment options.

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Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Avian influenza" for support, advocacy or research.

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Avian influenza" returned 936 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Spatio-temporal pattern analysis for evaluation of the spread of human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in China, 2013-2014.
 

Author(s): Wen Dong, Kun Yang, Quanli Xu, Lin Liu, Juan Chen

Journal:

 

A large number (n = 460) of A(H7N9) human infections have been reported in China from March 2013 through December 2014, and H7N9 outbreaks in humans became an emerging issue for China health, which have caused numerous disease outbreaks in domestic poultry and wild bird populations, ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Adenovirus vector-based multi-epitope vaccine provides partial protection against H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza viruses.
 

Author(s): Ahmed O Hassan, Omar Amen, Ekramy E Sayedahmed, Sai V Vemula, Samuel Amoah, Ian York, Shivaprakash Gangappa, Suryaprakash Sambhara, Suresh K Mittal

Journal:

 

The emergence of H5, H7, and H9 avian influenza virus subtypes in humans reveals their pandemic potential. Although human-to-human transmission has been limited, the genetic reassortment of the avian and human/porcine influenza viruses or mutations in some of the genes resulting in ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Risk of Human Infections With Highly Pathogenic H5N2 and Low Pathogenic H7N1 Avian Influenza Strains During Outbreaks in Ostriches in South Africa.
 

Author(s): Marietjie Venter, Florette K Treurnicht, Amelia Buys, Stefano Tempia, Rudo Samudzi, Johanna McAnerney, Charlene A Jacobs, Juno Thomas, Lucille Blumberg

Journal: J. Infect. Dis.. 2017 Sep;216(suppl_4):S512-S519.

 

Risk factors for human infection with highly pathogenic (HP) and low-pathogenic (LP) avian influenza (AI) H5N2 and H7N1 were investigated during outbreaks in ostriches in the Western Cape province, South Africa.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Avian influenza" returned 85 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Current situation of H9N2 subtype avian influenza in China.
 

Author(s): Min Gu, Lijun Xu, Xiaoquan Wang, Xiufan Liu

Journal:

 

In China, H9N2 subtype avian influenza outbreak is firstly reported in Guangdong province in 1992. Subsequently, the disease spreads into vast majority regions nationwide and has currently become endemic there. Over vicennial genetic evolution, the viral pathogenicity and transmissibility ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for avian influenza A (H7N9) patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a case report and short literature review.
 

Author(s): Qi Nie, Ding-Yu Zhang, Wen-Juan Wu, Chao-Lin Huang, Zheng-Yi Ni

Journal:

 

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is performed as an acceptable life-saving bridging procedure in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).To patients with avian influenza A (H7N9)-associated ARDS, ECMO could be adopted as a feasible therapeutic solution. ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Global epidemiology of avian influenza A H5N1 virus infection in humans, 1997-2015: a systematic review of individual case data.
 

Author(s): Shengjie Lai, Ying Qin, Benjamin J Cowling, Xiang Ren, Nicola A Wardrop, Marius Gilbert, Tim K Tsang, Peng Wu, Luzhao Feng, Hui Jiang, Zhibin Peng, Jiandong Zheng, Qiaohong Liao, Sa Li, Peter W Horby, Jeremy J Farrar, George F Gao, Andrew J Tatem, Hongjie Yu

Journal: Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Jul;16(7):e108-e118.

 

Avian influenza A H5N1 viruses have caused many, typically severe, human infections since the first human case was reported in 1997. However, no comprehensive epidemiological analysis of global human cases of H5N1 from 1997 to 2015 exists. Moreover, few studies have examined in detail ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

A Clinical Trail Of An Adjuvanted Inactivated H7N9 Influenza Vaccine
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: H7N9 Influenza

 

Last Updated: 10 Dec 2017

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Sanofi 2017 H7N9 With/Without AS03 in Adults/Elderly
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Avian Influenza; Influenza Immunisation

 

Last Updated: 22 Feb 2018

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Co-Administration of AS03 Adjuvanted A/H7N9 IIV With IIV4
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Avian Influenza; Influenza; Influenza Immunisation

 

Last Updated: 22 Feb 2018

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