Cryptorchidism

Common Name(s)

Cryptorchidism, Undescended testes

Undescended testes, or cryptorchidism, is a condition in which one testis or both testes (or testicles) does not descend from the abdomen into the scrotum by the time of birth. The scrotum is the sac of skin beneath the penis and is the proper location of the testes. This condition is more common among baby boys who are born prematurely, or before 37 weeks of pregnancy. This is a common condition that affects about 30% of premature and 4% of full term male births. Other risk factors for undescended testes are a low birth weight, a family history of undescended testes, having a mother affected by diabetes or obesity, and having a mother who smoked or used alcohol during pregnancy.

During development in the womb, the testes will naturally descend from the abdomen to the scrotum through a tube-like structure called the inguinal canal. If the testes fail to descend, they may be located in the abdomen or in the canal, or they may be completely absent. In a male who is born with only one testicle or with no testicles in the scrotum, it is most common for the testes to be undescended testes and to be located in the inguinal canal. Undescended testes may increase the risk for testicular cancer, and having two undescended testes may affect fertility. This condition can be diagnosed by a doctor by a physical examination.

The goal of treatment for undescended testes is to get the testis or testes to move into the scrotum. Sometimes this may happen naturally, usually by the time the boy reaches 9 months of age, or a doctor may be able to help. If the testes do not descend by 9 months of age, they can be relocated by a minor surgery known as orchiopexy. If your son has been diagnosed with undescended testes, talk to your doctor about the most current treatment options.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Cryptorchidism" for support, advocacy or research.

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Cryptorchidism" returned 165 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

A Case-Control Study of Maternal Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (PBDE) Exposure and Cryptorchidism in Canadian Populations.
 

Author(s): Cynthia G Goodyer, Shirley Poon, Katarina Aleksa, Laura Hou, Veronica Atehortua, Amanda Carnevale, Roman Jednak, Sherif Emil, Darius Bagli, Sumit Dave, Barbara F Hales, Jonathan Chevrier

Journal:

 

Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants found in North American household products during the past four decades. These chemicals leach out in dust as products age, exposing individuals daily through inhalation and ingestion. Animal studies suggest that PBDEs disrupt ...

Last Updated: 30 May 2017

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Leydig cell clustering and Reinke crystal distribution in relation to hormonal function in adult patients with testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) including cryptorchidism.
 

Author(s): Rikke R Soerensen, Trine H Johannsen, Niels E Skakkebaek, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts

Journal: Hormones (Athens). 2016 Oct;15(4):518-526.

 

Testicular dysgenesis syndrome (TDS) comprises testicular germ cell cancer, cryptorchidism and some cases of male infertility and hypospadias, which can be linked to impairment of intrauterine gonadal development. Among histological signs of TDS, large Leydig cell (LC) clusters (micronodules) ...

Last Updated: 21 Feb 2017

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Genomic copy number variation association study in Caucasian patients with nonsyndromic cryptorchidism.
 

Author(s): Yanping Wang, Jin Li, Thomas F Kolon, Alicia Olivant Fisher, T Ernesto Figueroa, Ahmad H BaniHani, Jennifer A Hagerty, Ricardo Gonzalez, Paul H Noh, Rosetta M Chiavacci, Kisha R Harden, Debra J Abrams, Deborah Stabley, Cecilia E Kim, Katia Sol-Church, Hakon Hakonarson, Marcella Devoto, Julia Spencer Barthold

Journal:

 

Copy number variation (CNV) is a potential contributing factor to many genetic diseases. Here we investigated the potential association of CNV with nonsyndromic cryptorchidism, the most common male congenital genitourinary defect, in a Caucasian population.

Last Updated: 22 Oct 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Cryptorchidism" returned 16 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Idiopathic abdominal cocoon syndrome with unilateral abdominal cryptorchidism and greater omentum hypoplasia in a young case of small bowel obstruction.
 

Author(s): Xiang Fei, Hai-Rui Yang, Peng-Fei Yu, Hai-Bo Sheng, Guo-Li Gu

Journal: World J. Gastroenterol.. 2016 May;22(20):4958-62.

 

Abdominal cocoon syndrome (ACS) is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to total or partial encapsulation of the small intestine by a fibrocollagenous membrane. Idiopathic ACS with abdominal cryptorchidism and greater omentum hypoplasia is even rarer clinically. We successfully ...

Last Updated: 30 May 2016

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Opinion: Comment on Evaluation and Treatment of Cryptorchidism: AUA/AAP and Nordic Consensus Guidelines.
 

Author(s): Faruk Hadziselimovic

Journal: Urol. Int.. 2016 ;96(3):249-54.

 

The ultimate goal in the treatment of cryptorchidism is to achieve normal fertility. However, in a substantial number of cryptorchid males, early and apparently successful orchidopexy does not improve fertility as it does not address the underlying pathophysiological cause, namely, ...

Last Updated: 5 Apr 2016

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Molecular Pathology of Cryptorchidism-Induced Infertility.
 

Author(s): Maria José Docampo, Faruk Hadziselimovic

Journal: Sex Dev. 2015 ;9(5):269-78.

 

Cryptorchidism is the most common cause of non-obstructive azoospermia in man. In contrast to the general belief that temperature-dependent effects on the undescended gonad damage cryptorchid testes before sexual maturation is complete, molecular pathology strongly supports the theory ...

Last Updated: 30 Jan 2016

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Orchidopexy Randomized Clinical Assessment
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Unilateral Cryptorchidism

 

Last Updated: 30 Jan 2017

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Last Updated: 11 Jul 2017

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One Stage vs. Two Stage Gubernaculum Sparing Laparoscopic Orchidopexy (GSLO)
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Cryptorchidism

 

Last Updated: 28 Aug 2017

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