Bladder infection

Common Name(s)

Bladder infection, Cystitis

A bladder infection, or cystitis, is the inflammation of the bladder. These infections typically originate from bacteria from one’s own stool. Bacteria enter the urethra (the tube which urine passes through) and spread into the bladder, causing infection and irritation. Although bladder infections can occur in all age groups, middle aged women and men are more at risk. Women typically develop the condition more frequently due to the closeness of the anus to the urethra. Other risk factors include diabetes, having issues urinating, using a urinary catheter, kidney stones, being pregnant, and being a male with an enlarged prostate.

Common symptoms may include painful or frequent urination, having to urinate frequently at night, pain in the lower back or below the belly button, and cloudy, smelly, or bloody urine (though blood is not necessarily visible). For the elderly, confusion may be a common symptom. A bladder infection is usually diagnosed through analysis of the urine. To optimize treatment, the urine sample may be cultured to determine the specific bacteria responsible.

Occasionally, the immune system can resolve the infection on its own, but if symptoms continue for more than a couple of days, the use of antibiotics may be required. If left unresolved, the infection can spread into the kidneys, which is a medical emergency. Symptoms of this complication include fevers of over 101 degrees Fahrenheit, chills, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and increased pain in the side, back, groin, or lower stomach.

To reduce the possibility of developing future bladder infections, drink plenty of fluids, change underwear daily, and urinate before and after sexual activity. It is also recommended for women to avoid the use of douches and feminine sprays, and to wipe front to back after urinating. If you are displaying the symptoms of a bladder infection, contact your doctor to discuss the most current treatment options available.

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Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Bladder infection" for support, advocacy or research.

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Bladder infection" returned 67 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Increased Age, but Not Parity Predisposes to Higher Bacteriuria Burdens Due to Streptococcus Urinary Tract Infection and Influences Bladder Cytokine Responses, Which Develop Independent of Tissue Bacterial Loads.
 

Author(s): Matthew J Sullivan, Alison J Carey, Sophie Y Leclercq, Chee K Tan, Glen C Ulett

Journal:

 

Streptococcus agalactiae causes urinary tract infection (UTI) in pregnant adults, non-pregnant adults, immune-compromised individuals and the elderly. The pathogenesis of S. agalactiae UTI in distinct patient populations is poorly understood. In this study, we used murine models of ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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The Prevalence and Prognostic Significance of Polyomavirus Infection in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder.
 

Author(s): Sheng-Wen Wu, Jia-Hung Liou, Kun-Tu Yeh, Tung-Wei Hung, Horng-Rong Chang

Journal:

 

Human polyomaviruses (PV) has been associated with oncogenicity; however, the association between human bladder cancer and PV remains inconclusive. Moreover, whether PV has the interaction with p53 in tumorigenesis and their prognostic significance on human bladder cancer has yet to be determined.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Febrile Urinary Tract Infection after Radical Cystectomy and Ileal Neobladder in Patients with Bladder Cancer.
 

Author(s): Kwang Hyun Kim, Hyun Suk Yoon, Hana Yoon, Woo Sik Chung, Bong Suk Sim, Dong Hyeon Lee

Journal: J. Korean Med. Sci.. 2016 Jul;31(7):1100-4.

 

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common complications after radical cystectomy and orthotopic neobladder reconstruction. This study investigated the incidence and implicated pathogen of febrile UTI after ileal neobladder reconstruction and identify clinical and urodynamic ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Bladder infection" returned 7 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Innate Immune Responses to Bladder Infection.
 

Author(s): Byron W Hayes, Soman N Abraham

Journal: Microbiol Spectr. 2016 Dec;4(6):.

 

Urinary tract infections are one of the most frequent bacterial infections of mankind. In spite of this frequency, the study of the immune system in the urinary tract has not attracted much attention. This could, in part, be attributable to the widespread use of antibiotics and similar ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Interesting Layering of Excreted 18F-FDG in the Urinary Bladder in Patients with Urinary Tract Infection and Distended Bladder.
 

Author(s): Guohua Shen, Wenjie Zhang, Zhiyun Jia, Houfu Deng

Journal: J Nucl Med Technol. 2015 Sep;43(3):234-5.

 

Settling of (18)F-FDG in the bladder is often noted on whole-body PET/CT images, but this phenomenon has never received any careful attention and the mechanism has been unclear. The 2 patients described in this report, one with a T1 pathologic fracture and another with widespread ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Are you experienced? Understanding bladder innate immunity in the context of recurrent urinary tract infection.
 

Author(s): Valerie P O'Brien, Thomas J Hannan, Anthony J Schaeffer, Scott J Hultgren

Journal: Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis.. 2015 Feb;28(1):97-105.

 

Recurrent urinary tract infection (rUTI) is a serious clinical problem, yet effective therapeutic options are limited, especially against multidrug-resistant uropathogens. In this review, we explore the development of a clinically relevant model of rUTI in previously infected mice ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

A Pilot Study of the Effects of Mirabegron on Symptoms in Patients With Interstitial Cystitis
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Cystitis, Interstitial

 

Last Updated: 17 Jan 2018

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Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Injection in Treatment of Interstitial Cystitis
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Interstitial Cystitis

 

Last Updated: 3 Apr 2017

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The Efficacy of Urine Biomarker in Patient With Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (Pilot Study)
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Chronic Interstitial Cystitis

 

Last Updated: 6 Jul 2017

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