Hyperprolactinemia

Common Name(s)

Hyperprolactinemia, Forbes Albright syndrome

Hyperprolactinemia is characterized by too much prolactin in the blood. Prolactin is a hormone made in the body by the pituitary gland which is a small organ at the base of the brain that works to help our body regulate growth, reproduction, lactation and stress. In women, increased levels of prolactin in the blood causes milk production and secretion from the breasts without associated childbirth or nursing (galctorrhea), the absence of a regular menstrual period (amenorrhea) and infertility. Though it is most often seen in femles, it can sometimes be seen in males. Males with hyperprolactinemia often have impaired sexual function and in rare cases can have milk secretion (galactorrhea). Higher than normal levels of prolactin can be caused by normal changes during pregnancy and nursing which is expected. However hyperprolactinemia can also be caused by prolonged stress, side effects of certain medications, or disease or tumors of the pituitary gland (sometimes called Forbes Albright syndrome). This condition can be diagnosed by measuring prolactin levels in the blood or by X-rays or MRI of the area surrounding the pituitary gland. Treatment typically includes medications to help reduce the amount of prolactin in the body. These are successful in the majority of patients though close follow up monitoring is needed due to recurrence. Surgery may be necessary if tumor does not respond to treatment with medications. Because high levels of prolactin and reduced or absent menstrual cycles also increases a woman's risk for osteoporosis (weak, brittle bones), it is important to follow up with your doctor in this regard.

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Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Hyperprolactinemia" for support, advocacy or research.

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Hyperprolactinemia" returned 96 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Psychiatric Patients with Antipsychotic Drug-Induced Hyperprolactinemia and Menstruation Disorders.
 

Author(s): Kenshi Takechi, Yurika Yoshioka, Hitoshi Kawazoe, Mamoru Tanaka, Shingo Takatori, Miwako Kobayashi, Ichiro Matsuoka, Hiroaki Yanagawa, Yoshito Zamami, Masaki Imanishi, Keisuke Ishizawa, Akihiro Tanaka, Hiroaki Araki

Journal: Biol. Pharm. Bull.. 2017 ;40(10):1775-1778.

 

Treatment with antipsychotic drugs has been associated with hyperprolactinemia. The same antipsychotic drugs have also been associated with side effects such as menstruation disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hyperprolactinemia and menstruation disorders ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Hyperprolactinemia in Children with Subclinical Hypothyroidism.
 

Author(s): Neera Sharma, Deep Dutta, Lokesh Kumar Sharma

Journal: J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2017 Dec;9(4):350-354.

 

Prevalence of hyperprolactinemia in children with subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) is not known. This study aimed to determine the occurrence and predictors of hyperprolactinemia in euthyroid children and in children with ScH and overt primary hypothyroidism (OPH). Serum prolactin ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Prospective, long-term study of the effect of cabergoline on valvular status in patients with prolactinoma and idiopathic hyperprolactinemia.
 

Author(s): Laurent Vroonen, Patrizio Lancellotti, Monica Tomé Garcia, Raluca Dulgheru, Matilde Rubio-Almanza, Ibrahima Maiga, Julien Magne, Patrick Petrossians, Renata Auriemma, Adrian F Daly, Albert Beckers

Journal: Endocrine. 2017 01;55(1):239-245.

 

Since the 1990's cabergoline has been the treatment of choice in prolactinoma, as it permits rapid and effective hormonal and tumor control in most cases. Evidence of cardiac valvulopathy was demonstrated in Parkinson's disease patients treated with dopamine agonists. Retrospective ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Hyperprolactinemia" returned 12 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Controversial issues in the management of hyperprolactinemia and prolactinomas - An overview by the Neuroendocrinology Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism.
 

Author(s): Lucio Vilar, Julio Abucham, José Luciano Albuquerque, Luiz Antônio Araujo, Monalisa F Azevedo, Cesar Luiz Boguszewski, Luiz Augusto Casulari, Malebranche B C Cunha Neto, Mauro A Czepielewski, Felipe H G Duarte, Manuel Dos S Faria, Monica R Gadelha, Heraldo M Garmes, Andrea Glezer, Maria Helane Gurgel, Raquel S Jallad, Manoel Martins, Paulo A C Miranda, Renan M Montenegro, Nina R C Musolino, Luciana A Naves, Antônio Ribeiro-Oliveira Júnior, Cíntia M S Silva, Camila Viecceli, Marcello D Bronstein

Journal: Arch Endocrinol Metab. ;62(2):236-263.

 

Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas (approximately 40% of cases), and they represent an important cause of hypogonadism and infertility in both sexes. The magnitude of prolactin (PRL) elevation can be useful in determining the etiology of hyperprolactinemia. Indeed, ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Laboratory and clinical significance of macroprolactinemia in women with hyperprolactinemia.
 

Author(s): Miro Kasum, Slavko Orešković, Ermin Čehić, Martina Šunj, Albert Lila, Emina Ejubović

Journal: Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2017 Dec;56(6):719-724.

 

The role of macroprolactinemia in women with hyperprolactinemia is currently controversial and can lead to clinical dilemmas, depending upon the origin of macroprolactin, the presence of hyperprolactinemic symptoms and monomeric prolactin (PRL) levels. Macroprolactinemia is mostly ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Challenges and pitfalls in the diagnosis of hyperprolactinemia.
 

Author(s): Lucio Vilar, Maria Fleseriu, Marcello D Bronstein

Journal: Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2014 Feb;58(1):9-22.

 

The definition of the etiology of hyperprolactinemia often represents a great challenge and an accurate diagnosis is paramount before treatment. Although prolactin levels > 200-250 ng/mL are highly suggestive of prolactinomas, they can occasionally be found in other conditions. Moreover, ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Administration of Kisspeptin in Patients With Hyperprolactinemia
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Hyperprolactinemia; Hypogonadism

 

Last Updated: 18 Jun 2018

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Treatment of Hyperprolactinemia With the Non-ergoline Dopamine Agonist Ropinirole
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Hyperprolactinemia; Prolactinoma

 

Last Updated: 16 Jul 2018

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Administration of Kisspeptin to Subjects With Reproductive Disorders
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism; Kallmann Syndrome; GnRH Deficiency; PCOS; Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome; Hyperprolactinemia

 

Last Updated: 18 Jun 2018

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