Gigantism

Common Name(s)

Gigantism

Gigantism is abnormally large growth due to an excess of growth hormone (GH) during childhood, before the bone growth plates have closed (epiphyseal fusion). It causes excessive growth in height, muscles, and organs, making the child extremely large for age. Other symptoms may include delayed puberty; double vision or difficulty with side (peripheral) vision; prominent forehead (frontal bossing) and a prominent jaw; headache; increased sweating (hyperhidrosis); irregular periods; large hands and feet with thick fingers and toes; thickening of the facial features; and weakness.  It may begin at any age before epiphyseal fusion. The most common cause is a non-cancerous (benign) tumor of the pituitary gland, which may cause it to make too much GH, but it can be caused by other underlying conditions (which may cause a pituitary tumor) including Carney complex; McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS); Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1); and Neurofibromatosis. Treatment typically includes surgery to remove the tumor and can cure many cases. Medication or radiation therapy may be used to reduce GH release or block the effect of GH. If the condition occurs after normal bone growth has stopped (in adulthood), it is referred to as acromegaly.
 

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Gigantism" for support, advocacy or research.

There are currently no organizations listed in Disease InfoSearch that support this condition. Create a listing.

 

 

General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Gigantism" returned 55 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

In-frame seven amino-acid duplication in AIP arose over the last 3000 years, disrupts protein interaction and stability and is associated with gigantism.
 

Author(s): Roberto Salvatori, Serban Radian, Yoan Diekmann, Donato Iacovazzo, Alessia David, Plamena Gabrovska, Giorgia Grassi, Anna-Marie Bussell, Karen Stals, Astrid Weber, Richard Quinton, Elizabeth C Crowne, Valentina Corazzini, Lou Metherell, Tara Kearney, Daniel Du Plessis, Ajay Kumar Sinha, Atik Baborie, Anne-Lise Lecoq, Philippe Chanson, Olaf Ansorge, Sian Ellard, Peter J Trainer, David Balding, Mark G Thomas, Márta Korbonits

Journal: Eur. J. Endocrinol.. 2017 Sep;177(3):257-266.

 

Mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene are associated with pituitary adenoma, acromegaly and gigantism. Identical alleles in unrelated pedigrees could be inherited from a common ancestor or result from recurrent mutation events.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Increased Population Risk of AIP-Related Acromegaly and Gigantism in Ireland.
 

Author(s): Serban Radian, Yoan Diekmann, Plamena Gabrovska, Brendan Holland, Lisa Bradley, Helen Wallace, Karen Stals, Anna-Marie Bussell, Karen McGurren, Martin Cuesta, Anthony W Ryan, Maria Herincs, Laura C Hernández-Ramírez, Aidan Holland, Jade Samuels, Elena Daniela Aflorei, Sayka Barry, Judit Dénes, Ida Pernicova, Craig E Stiles, Giampaolo Trivellin, Ronan McCloskey, Michal Ajzensztejn, Noina Abid, Scott A Akker, Moises Mercado, Mark Cohen, Rajesh V Thakker, Stephanie Baldeweg, Ariel Barkan, Madalina Musat, Miles Levy, Stephen M Orme, Martina Unterländer, Joachim Burger, Ajith V Kumar, Sian Ellard, Joseph McPartlin, Ross McManus, Gerard J Linden, Brew Atkinson, David J Balding, Amar Agha, Chris J Thompson, Steven J Hunter, Mark G Thomas, Patrick J Morrison, Márta Korbonits

Journal: Hum. Mutat.. 2017 Jan;38(1):78-85.

 

The aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) founder mutation R304* (or p.R304* ; NM_003977.3:c.910C>T, p.Arg304Ter) identified in Northern Ireland (NI) predisposes to acromegaly/gigantism; its population health impact remains unexplored. We measured R304* carrier frequency ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.
 

Author(s): Luciana A Naves, Adrian F Daly, Luiz Augusto Dias, Bo Yuan, Juliano Coelho Oliveira Zakir, Gustavo Barcellos Barra, Leonor Palmeira, Chiara Villa, Giampaolo Trivellin, Armindo Jreige Júnior, Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcante Neto, Pengfei Liu, Natalia S Pellegata, Constantine A Stratakis, James R Lupski, Albert Beckers

Journal: Endocrine. 2016 Feb;51(2):236-44.

 

X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Gigantism" returned 6 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Pituitary gigantism: update on molecular biology and management.
 

Author(s): Maya B Lodish, Giampaolo Trivellin, Constantine A Stratakis

Journal: Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2016 Feb;23(1):72-80.

 

To provide an update on the mechanisms leading to pituitary gigantism, as well as to familiarize the practitioner with the implication of these genetic findings on treatment decisions.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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An evolutionary cascade model for sauropod dinosaur gigantism--overview, update and tests.
 

Author(s): P Martin Sander

Journal:

 

Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Familial gigantism.
 

Author(s): Wouter W de Herder

Journal: Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012 ;67 Suppl 1():29-32.

 

Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Genetics of Endocrine Tumours - Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma - FIPA
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Acromegaly; Gigantism; Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma; FIPA; Pituitary Adenoma Predisposition; PAP

 

Last Updated: 15 Jul 2015

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