Gigantism

Common Name(s)

Gigantism

Gigantism is abnormally large growth due to an excess of growth hormone (GH) during childhood, before the bone growth plates have closed (epiphyseal fusion). It causes excessive growth in height, muscles, and organs, making the child extremely large for age. Other symptoms may include delayed puberty; double vision or difficulty with side (peripheral) vision; prominent forehead (frontal bossing) and a prominent jaw; headache; increased sweating (hyperhidrosis); irregular periods; large hands and feet with thick fingers and toes; thickening of the facial features; and weakness.  It may begin at any age before epiphyseal fusion. The most common cause is a non-cancerous (benign) tumor of the pituitary gland, which may cause it to make too much GH, but it can be caused by other underlying conditions (which may cause a pituitary tumor) including Carney complex; McCune-Albright syndrome (MAS); Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN-1); and Neurofibromatosis. Treatment typically includes surgery to remove the tumor and can cure many cases. Medication or radiation therapy may be used to reduce GH release or block the effect of GH. If the condition occurs after normal bone growth has stopped (in adulthood), it is referred to as acromegaly.
 

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Gigantism" for support, advocacy or research.

There are currently no organizations listed in Disease InfoSearch that support this condition. Create a listing.

 

 

General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Gigantism" returned 54 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

In-frame seven amino-acid duplication in AIP arose over the last 3000 years, disrupts protein interaction and stability and is associated with gigantism.
 

Author(s): Roberto Salvatori, Serban Radian, Yoan Diekmann, Donato Iacovazzo, Alessia David, Plamena Gabrovska, Giorgia Grassi, Anna-Marie Bussell, Karen Stals, Astrid Weber, Richard Quinton, Elizabeth C Crowne, Valentina Corazzini, Lou Metherell, Tara Kearney, Daniel Du Plessis, Ajay Kumar Sinha, Atik Baborie, Anne-Lise Lecoq, Philippe Chanson, Olaf Ansorge, Sian Ellard, Peter J Trainer, David Balding, Mark G Thomas, Márta Korbonits

Journal: Eur. J. Endocrinol.. 2017 Sep;177(3):257-266.

 

Mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene are associated with pituitary adenoma, acromegaly and gigantism. Identical alleles in unrelated pedigrees could be inherited from a common ancestor or result from recurrent mutation events.

Last Updated: 21 Jun 2017

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Aggressive tumor growth and clinical evolution in a patient with X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome.
 

Author(s): Luciana A Naves, Adrian F Daly, Luiz Augusto Dias, Bo Yuan, Juliano Coelho Oliveira Zakir, Gustavo Barcellos Barra, Leonor Palmeira, Chiara Villa, Giampaolo Trivellin, Armindo Jreige Júnior, Florêncio Figueiredo Cavalcante Neto, Pengfei Liu, Natalia S Pellegata, Constantine A Stratakis, James R Lupski, Albert Beckers

Journal: Endocrine. 2016 Feb;51(2):236-44.

 

X-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) syndrome is a newly described disease caused by microduplications on chromosome Xq26.3 leading to copy number gain of GPR101. We describe the clinical progress of a sporadic male X-LAG syndrome patient with an Xq26.3 microduplication, highlighting the ...

Last Updated: 2 Feb 2016

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Clinical and genetic characterization of pituitary gigantism: an international collaborative study in 208 patients.
 

Author(s): Liliya Rostomyan, Adrian F Daly, Patrick Petrossians, Emil Nachev, Anurag R Lila, Anne-Lise Lecoq, Beatriz Lecumberri, Giampaolo Trivellin, Roberto Salvatori, Andreas G Moraitis, Ian Holdaway, Dianne J Kranenburg-van Klaveren, Maria Chiara Zatelli, Nuria Palacios, Cecile Nozieres, Margaret Zacharin, Tapani Ebeling, Marja Ojaniemi, Liudmila Rozhinskaya, Elisa Verrua, Marie-Lise Jaffrain-Rea, Silvia Filipponi, Daria Gusakova, Vyacheslav Pronin, Jerome Bertherat, Zhanna Belaya, Irena Ilovayskaya, Mona Sahnoun-Fathallah, Caroline Sievers, Gunter K Stalla, Emilie Castermans, Jean-Hubert Caberg, Ekaterina Sorkina, Renata Simona Auriemma, Sachin Mittal, Maria Kareva, Philippe A Lysy, Philippe Emy, Ernesto De Menis, Catherine S Choong, Giovanna Mantovani, Vincent Bours, Wouter De Herder, Thierry Brue, Anne Barlier, Sebastian J C M M Neggers, Sabina Zacharieva, Philippe Chanson, Nalini Samir Shah, Constantine A Stratakis, Luciana A Naves, Albert Beckers

Journal: Endocr. Relat. Cancer. 2015 Oct;22(5):745-57.

 

Despite being a classical growth disorder, pituitary gigantism has not been studied previously in a standardized way. We performed a retrospective, multicenter, international study to characterize a large series of pituitary gigantism patients. We included 208 patients (163 males; ...

Last Updated: 25 Aug 2015

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Gigantism" returned 6 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Pituitary gigantism: update on molecular biology and management.
 

Author(s): Maya B Lodish, Giampaolo Trivellin, Constantine A Stratakis

Journal: Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2016 Feb;23(1):72-80.

 

To provide an update on the mechanisms leading to pituitary gigantism, as well as to familiarize the practitioner with the implication of these genetic findings on treatment decisions.

Last Updated: 25 Dec 2015

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An evolutionary cascade model for sauropod dinosaur gigantism--overview, update and tests.
 

Author(s): P Martin Sander

Journal:

 

Sauropod dinosaurs are a group of herbivorous dinosaurs which exceeded all other terrestrial vertebrates in mean and maximal body size. Sauropod dinosaurs were also the most successful and long-lived herbivorous tetrapod clade, but no abiological factors such as global environmental ...

Last Updated: 8 Nov 2013

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Familial gigantism.
 

Author(s): Wouter W de Herder

Journal: Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012 ;67 Suppl 1():29-32.

 

Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.

Last Updated: 15 May 2012

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Genetics of Endocrine Tumours - Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma - FIPA
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Acromegaly; Gigantism; Familial Isolated Pituitary Adenoma; FIPA; Pituitary Adenoma Predisposition; PAP

 

Last Updated: 15 Jul 2015

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