Herpes simplex encephalitis 1

Common Name(s)

Herpes simplex encephalitis 1

Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 is most often associated with infection of the oral mucosa. Primary infection is most commonly asymptomatic, but it may lead to symptoms usually involving the mucosa and skin. Following replication at the infection site, HSV-1 enters the epithelial endings of sensory neurons and travels up the trigeminal cranial nerves to the trigeminal ganglia, where latent infection is established. Reactivation of HSV-1, usually in the form of herpes labialis (cold sores), may occur in 20 to 40% of the population. HSV-1 seroprevalence is high, with over 85% of adults between the ages of 20 and 40 years infected. HSV-1 rarely infects the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), with an incidence of 2 to 4 per 1,000,000 people per year. In HSE, HSV-1 invades and replicates in neurons and glial cells, where focal necrotizing infections occur, primarily affecting the temporal and subfrontal regions of the brain. Untreated, HSE is fatal in at least 70% of cases, although the mortality and morbidity have been drastically reduced with antiviral therapy. Approximately one-third of all HSE cases are due to primary infections, and 30% of all HSE cases occur in children under the age of 20 years. Among children, HSE peaks between 3 months and 3 years of age, coinciding with the time of primary infection. In a subset of children, HSE results from a series of monogenic primary immunodeficiencies that impair UNC93B1- and TLR3 ({603029})-dependent production of IFNA ({147660})/IFNB ({147640}) and IFNG ({147570}) in the CNS (summary by {7:Sancho-Shimizu et al., 2007}). Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Acute Infection-Induced Encephalopathy, including Herpes Simplex Encephalitis For other forms of susceptibility to acute infection-induced encephalopathy, see HSE susceptibility (IIAE2; {613002}), caused by mutation in the TLR3 gene ({603029}) on chromosome 4q35; HSE susceptibility (IIAE5; {614849}), caused by mutation in the TRAF3 gene ({601896}) on chromosome 14q32; HSE susceptibility (IIAE6; {614850}), caused by mutation in the TICAM1 gene ({607601}) on chromosome 19p13; HSE susceptibility (IIAE7; {616532}), caused by mutation in the IRF3 gene ({603734}) on chromosome 19q13; IIAE4 susceptibility ({614212}), caused by mutation in the CPT2 gene ({600650}) on chromosome 1p32; and IIAE3 susceptibility ({608033}), caused by mutation in the RANBP2 gene ({601181}) on chromosome 2q12.
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Herpes simplex encephalitis 1" for support, advocacy or research.

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ProjectAccept.org

To gather together all individuals and groups affected by HSV(herpes) & HPV into one social movement; to organize and empower the community in order to fund ProjectAccept.org which will combat HSV & HPV on the following fronts: Awareness: To raise public awareness of both the present and the potential impact of viruses on the uninfected and their loved ones Acceptance: To combat the stigma surrounding HSV & HPV; to make life for the affected easier, while fighting the spread of the viruses through more open communication Virus Research: To combat the disease(s) medically

Last Updated: 15 Apr 2013

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The STD Project

Established in April of 2012 during STD Awareness Month, The STD Project is a multi-award-winning independent website and progressive movement eradicating STD stigma by facilitating and encouraging awareness, education, and acceptance through story-telling and resource recommendations. We are taking steps toward modern-day sexual health and prevention by advocating for conscientious and informed decisions.

Last Updated: 11 Jul 2016

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Herpes simplex encephalitis 1" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
ProjectAccept.org

To gather together all individuals and groups affected by HSV(herpes) & HPV into one social movement; to organize and empower the community in order to fund ProjectAccept.org which will combat HSV & HPV on the following fronts: Awareness: To raise public awareness of both the present and the potential impact of viruses on the uninfected and their loved ones Acceptance: To combat the stigma surrounding HSV & HPV; to make life for the affected easier, while fighting the spread of the viruses through more open communication Virus Research: To combat the disease(s) medically

http://www.projectaccept.org

Last Updated: 15 Apr 2013

View Details
Logo
The STD Project

Established in April of 2012 during STD Awareness Month, The STD Project is a multi-award-winning independent website and progressive movement eradicating STD stigma by facilitating and encouraging awareness, education, and acceptance through story-telling and resource recommendations. We are taking steps toward modern-day sexual health and prevention by advocating for conscientious and informed decisions.

http://www.thestdproject.com/

Last Updated: 11 Jul 2016

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Herpes simplex encephalitis 1" returned 10 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis induced by chemoradiotherapy and steroids in an esophageal cancer patient: a case report.
 

Author(s): Masaaki Saito, Hirokazu Kiyozaki, Tamotu Obitsu, Hirofumi Imoto, Yusuke Taniyama, Osamu Takata, Toshiki Rikiyama

Journal:

 

Systemic chemotherapy combined with steroids used as prophylactic antiemetics have been reported to induce immunosuppression. Further, herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) infection has been reported to occur in patients with small cell carcinomas after chemoradiotherapy that includes brain ...

Last Updated: 18 Mar 2016

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Herpes simplex virus 1 encephalitis associated with voltage-gated calcium channel autoimmunity.
 

Author(s): Michael J Bradshaw, Siddharama Pawate, Vanda A Lennon, Karen C Bloch, Kelly M Brown

Journal: Neurology. 2015 Dec;85(24):2176-7.

 

Last Updated: 15 Dec 2015

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Simultaneous detection of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with seizures and encephalitis.
 

Author(s): Neil W Anderson, William Sistrunk, Matthew J Binnicker

Journal: J. Clin. Microbiol.. 2015 Jan;53(1):343-5.

 

We report a case of a 62-year-old female with seizures and encephalitis. Molecular testing of the patient's cerebrospinal fluid was positive for both herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2). To our knowledge, this is the first report of simultaneous detection of HSV-1 and HSV-2 ...

Last Updated: 19 Dec 2014

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Herpes simplex encephalitis 1" returned 2 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Encephalitis in Adults: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Management.
 

Author(s): Michael J Bradshaw, Arun Venkatesan

Journal: Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Jul;13(3):493-508.

 

Herpetic infections have plagued humanity for thousands of years, but only recently have advances in antiviral medications and supportive treatments equipped physicians to combat the most severe manifestations of disease. Prompt recognition and treatment can be life-saving in the ...

Last Updated: 29 Jul 2016

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[Acute herpes simplex virus type 1 retinal necrosis three years after herpes simplex encephalitis].
 

Author(s): Maialen Arruti, Maialen Aldazabal, Ana Blanco, Luis Piñeiro, M Soledad Zapico, Félix González, Adolfo López de Munain

Journal: Rev Neurol. 2014 Jan;58(1):45-6.

 

Last Updated: 17 Dec 2013

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

There are currently no open clinical trials for this condition.