Intellectual disability

Common Name(s)

Intellectual disability, Intellectual developmental disorder, Mental retardation

Intellectual disability, formerly known as mental retardation, is a condition that is apparent before the age of 18 and consists of both below-average intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. There are a number of causes of intellectual disability. Our understanding of the causes of intellectual disability focuses on the types of risk factors (biomedical, social, behavioral, and educational) and the timing of exposure (before, during, or after birth) to those factors.

Intellectual disability is often diagnosed during early childhood or the early school years. To make a diagnosis of intellectual disability, a psychologist or physician will use measures of intellectual functioning (mental capacity for learning, reasoning, problem solving, and so on, often known as an “IQ test”) and adaptive behavior, including skills related to using concepts (such as language, money, or time), social skills, and those practical skills needed to take care of one’s self.

There are many sources of information and support for people with intellectual disability and their families.

Source: American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Intellectual disability" for support, advocacy or research.

Mowat Wilson Support

We are a support group and website where families can share information about Mowat-Wilson Syndrome. Our website includes support group information, a forum, photos and profiles of children with MWS and parent survey pages. We want to help inform the public about this rare condition and to help those affected by it not feel so alone by giving them a place to exchange information and experiences with others in the same situation.

Last Updated: 6 Mar 2014

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Pediatric Brain Foundation

Pediatric Brain Foundation's Mission is Three-fold: 1. Expedite scientific research to find treatments and cures for ALL of the more than 14 million children, in the U.S. alone, living with some form of neurological disorder 2. Provide families and health care professionals with up-to-date information and resources on the latest discoveries in pediatric neurology 3. Educate the public and public officials on the critical importance of funding pediatric neurological research

Last Updated: 22 Apr 2015

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Simons VIP Connect

The Simons Variation in Individuals Project (Simons VIP) is an online community and research initiative. We provide a platform to partner families and researchers to better understand over 40 genetic changes (genomic variants) associated with features related to autism and developmental delay.

Last Updated: 20 Jul 2015

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VOR-Speaking up for people with intellectual & developmental disabilities

VOR is a national organization advocating for high quality care and human rights for all people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Last Updated: 29 Apr 2014

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

Privately answer questions about your health. Let resources, you select, come to you.

Anonymously share and see how your answers compare with others with this condition while privately providing key pieces of information to medical researchers, disease advocacy groups, and others ONLY YOU select to help speed up cures and better alternatives.

 
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Intellectual disability" for support, advocacy or research.

Mowat Wilson Support

We are a support group and website where families can share information about Mowat-Wilson Syndrome. Our website includes support group information, a forum, photos and profiles of children with MWS and parent survey pages. We want to help inform the public about this rare condition and to help those affected by it not feel so alone by giving them a place to exchange information and experiences with others in the same situation.

http://www.mowatwilson.org

Last Updated: 6 Mar 2014

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Pediatric Brain Foundation

Pediatric Brain Foundation's Mission is Three-fold: 1. Expedite scientific research to find treatments and cures for ALL of the more than 14 million children, in the U.S. alone, living with some form of neurological disorder 2. Provide families and health care professionals with up-to-date information and resources on the latest discoveries in pediatric neurology 3. Educate the public and public officials on the critical importance of funding pediatric neurological research

http://www.pediatricbrainfoundation.org

Last Updated: 22 Apr 2015

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Simons VIP Connect

The Simons Variation in Individuals Project (Simons VIP) is an online community and research initiative. We provide a platform to partner families and researchers to better understand over 40 genetic changes (genomic variants) associated with features related to autism and developmental delay.

http://www.simonsvipconnect.org

Last Updated: 20 Jul 2015

View Details
VOR-Speaking up for people with intellectual & developmental disabilities

VOR is a national organization advocating for high quality care and human rights for all people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

http://www.vor.net

Last Updated: 29 Apr 2014

View Details

 

General Support Organizations

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General Resources

Toolkit for Families

Advocacy resources for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, including autism, and their families, guardians and advocates. Resources relate to residential choice, federal laws, cost comparisons, quality of care and more.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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Toolkit for Legislators, Policymakers, and Officials

Advocacy resources for legislators and policymakers re: to developmental disabilities, including autism, Resources relate to residential choice, federal laws, cost comparisons, quality of care and more.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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VOR Press Kit

VOR's 2014 Press Kit, a collection of written materials designed to introduce VOR to the media and others, is now available. For more information, please contact Julie Huso, Executive Director at jhuso@vor.net.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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Olmstead Resources

The Supreme Court, in its landmark Olmstead v. L.C.n decision, recognized the need for a range of services, based on individual choice and need, which respond to the varied and unique needs of the entire disability community.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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Learn About VOR

VOR's Mission, Policy and Positions, and more. Learn more about the only national non-profit organization advocating for high quality care and human rights based on individual choice and need.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Intellectual disability" returned 636 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Intellectual disability content within tertiary medical curriculum: how is it taught and by whom?
 

Author(s): Julian N Trollor, Claire Eagleson, Beth Turner, Jane Tracy, Jennifer J Torr, Seeta Durvasula, Teresa Iacono, Rachael C Cvejic, Nicolas Lennox

Journal:

 

Individuals with intellectual disability experience higher rates of physical and mental health conditions compared with the general population, yet have inequitable access to health care services. Improving the workplace capacity of medical professionals to meet the needs of this ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Intellectual disability in the Esidimeni tragedy: Silent deaths.
 

Author(s): C Capri, B Watermeyer, J Mckenzie, O Coetzee

Journal:

 

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Intellectual disability in South Africa: Addressing a crisis in mental health services.
 

Author(s): D J Stein, K Sorsdahl, C Lund

Journal:

 

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Intellectual disability" returned 68 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Rho GTPases in Intellectual Disability: From Genetics to Therapeutic Opportunities.
 

Author(s): Valentina Zamboni, Rebecca Jones, Alessandro Umbach, Alessandra Ammoni, Maria Passafaro, Emilio Hirsch, Giorgio R Merlo

Journal:

 

Rho-class small GTPases are implicated in basic cellular processes at nearly all brain developmental steps, from neurogenesis and migration to axon guidance and synaptic plasticity. GTPases are key signal transducing enzymes that link extracellular cues to the neuronal responses required ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Does assistive technology contribute to social inclusion for people with intellectual disability? A systematic review protocol.
 

Author(s): John Owuor, Fiona Larkan, Bonnix Kayabu, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Greg Sheaf, John Dinsmore, Roy McConkey, Mike Clarke, Malcolm MacLachlan

Journal:

 

The aim of this review is to answer the following question: Previous research on assistive technology has focused on socioeconomic impacts such as education, employment and access to healthcare by people with intellectual disability. There is a need to consolidate evidence on the ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Epigenetic Etiology of Intellectual Disability.
 

Author(s): Shigeki Iwase, Nathalie G Bérubé, Zhaolan Zhou, Nael Nadif Kasri, Elena Battaglioli, Marilyn Scandaglia, Angel Barco

Journal: J. Neurosci.. 2017 Nov;37(45):10773-10782.

 

Intellectual disability (ID) is a prevailing neurodevelopmental condition associated with impaired cognitive and adaptive behaviors. Many chromatin-modifying enzymes and other epigenetic regulators have been genetically associated with ID disorders (IDDs). Here we review how alterations ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Psychotropic Medication and Psychotherapeutic Treatment of Adults With Intellectual Disabilities
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Intellectual Disability

 

Last Updated: 15 Jun 2018

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Last Updated: 17 Apr 2018

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Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Games With Virtual Reality in Intellectual Disabilities
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Intellectual Disability

 

Last Updated: 14 Aug 2017

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