Melanoma

Common Name(s)

Melanoma

Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer that develops in cells that produce melanin (melanocytes), which give skin its color. Skin cancer is a life threatening condition, but it can be fully treated if detected early. Symptoms of melanoma include a change to an existing mole or the development of an abnormal growth on the skin. Mole changes that may indicate melanoma include asymmetrical shape, an irregular border, change in color, and change in size (larger than ΒΌ inch diameter). Although melanoma generally occurs in places with a lot of sun exposure, it can also occur in other areas, especially in people with darker skin. This type of melanoma, called hidden melanoma, can occur under a nail, in the mouth, or on the bottom of the foot. The cause of melanoma is not completely clear, but it is likely due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. UV radiation, from the sun or tanning beds, is considered the leading cause of melanoma. Risk factors include fair skin, a history of sunburn, excessive UV light exposure, living at high elevation, unusual number of moles, family history of melanoma, and a weakened immune system.

A doctor, usually a dermatologist, can identify signs of melanoma by examining the skin. Removal (biopsy) and examination under the microscope (pathology) of the affected area is used to confirm the diagnosis. Like many forms of cancer, there are many treatment options available. Early-stage melanomas are usually removed entirely during the biopsy and require no further treatment. Melanomas that have spread beyond the skin, to lymph nodes or other parts of the body, will need additional treatments which may include surgery to remove affected lymph nodes, chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy the cancer cells, biological therapy to boost the immune system, and targeted therapy. If you have been diagnosed with melanoma, speak with your doctor about the current treatment options.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Melanoma" for support, advocacy or research.

Cancer Hope Network

To provide one-on-one support to people undergoing treatment for cancer and to their families. We provide this support by training individuals who have recovered from cancer and matching them with cancer patients currently undergoing a similar experience. Through this matching process, we strive to instill hope and to make a difference in their fight against cancer.

Last Updated: 29 Jul 2015

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Melanoma International Foundation

The mission of the Melanoma International Foundation is to develop personalized strategies with patients so they may live longer, better lives.

Last Updated: 29 Jun 2015

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Melanoma" for support, advocacy or research.

Cancer Hope Network

To provide one-on-one support to people undergoing treatment for cancer and to their families. We provide this support by training individuals who have recovered from cancer and matching them with cancer patients currently undergoing a similar experience. Through this matching process, we strive to instill hope and to make a difference in their fight against cancer.

http://www.CancerHopeNetwork.org

Last Updated: 29 Jul 2015

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Melanoma International Foundation

The mission of the Melanoma International Foundation is to develop personalized strategies with patients so they may live longer, better lives.

http://www.melanomainternational.org

Last Updated: 29 Jun 2015

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Melanoma" returned 10560 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

RNA Sequencing Analysis Reveals Interactions between Breast Cancer or Melanoma Cells and the Tissue Microenvironment during Brain Metastasis.
 

Author(s): Ryo Sato, Teppei Nakano, Mari Hosonaga, Oltea Sampetrean, Ritsuko Harigai, Takashi Sasaki, Ikuko Koya, Hideyuki Okano, Jun Kudoh, Hideyuki Saya, Yoshimi Arima

Journal: Biomed Res Int. 2017 ;2017():8032910.

 

Metastasis is the main cause of treatment failure and death in cancer patients. Metastasis of tumor cells to the brain occurs frequently in individuals with breast cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, or melanoma. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the causes and in the ...

Last Updated: 17 Feb 2017

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Antineoplastic Effects of Honokiol on Melanoma.
 

Author(s): Ruth Guillermo-Lagae, Sreevidya Santha, Milton Thomas, Emily Zoelle, Jonathan Stevens, Radhey S Kaushik, Chandradhar Dwivedi

Journal: Biomed Res Int. 2017 ;2017():5496398.

 

Honokiol, a plant lignan has been shown to have antineoplastic effects against nonmelanoma skin cancer developments in mice. In this study, antineoplastic effects of honokiol were investigated in malignant melanoma models. In vitro effects of honokiol treatment on SKMEL-2 and UACC-62 ...

Last Updated: 14 Feb 2017

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Not only for melanoma. Subcutaneous pseudoprogression in lung squamous-cell carcinoma treated with nivolumab: A case report.
 

Author(s): Michal Sarfaty, Assaf Moore, Elizabeth Dudnik, Nir Peled

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Jan;96(4):e5951.

 

Pseudoprogression, that is, initial tumor growth followed by subsequent tumor regression, has been well described for immunomodulation therapy in melanoma patients. This phenomenon is not well defined in lung cancer. Nivolumab, an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody, was recently approved ...

Last Updated: 25 Jan 2017

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Melanoma" returned 819 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Neoplastic Meningitis Due to Lung, Breast, and Melanoma Metastases.
 

Author(s): Emilie Le Rhun, Sophie Taillibert, Marc C Chamberlain

Journal: Cancer Control. 2017 Jan;24(1):22-32.

 

Neoplastic meningitis, a central nervous system (CNS) complication of cancer metastatic to the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is relevant to oncologists due to the impact of the disease on patient quality of life and survival rates.

Last Updated: 8 Feb 2017

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Primary cerebral malignant melanoma: A case report with literature review.
 

Author(s): Kai Tang, Xiangyi Kong, Gengsheng Mao, Ming Qiu, Haibo Zhu, Lei Zhou, Qingbin Nie, Yi Xu, Shiwei Du

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Jan;96(4):e5805.

 

Primary intracranial melanomas are uncommon and constitute approximately 1% of all melanoma cases and 0.07% of all brain tumors. In nature, these primary melanomas are very aggressive and can spread to other organs.We report an uncommon case of primary cerebral malignant melanoma-a ...

Last Updated: 25 Jan 2017

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Early analysis of surrogate endpoints for metastatic melanoma in immune checkpoint inhibitor trials.
 

Author(s): Fausto Petrelli, Andrea Coinu, Mary Cabiddu, Karen Borgonovo, Mara Ghilardi, Veronica Lonati, Sandro Barni

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Jun;95(26):e3997.

 

Recent major phase III trials led to the approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, and nivolumab) in metastatic malignant melanoma (MM). We aim to assess whether median progression-free survival, and 1 and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates are reliable ...

Last Updated: 2 Jul 2016

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Prospective Melanoma Database
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Melanoma

 

Last Updated: 25 Aug 2016

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Characterization of the Melanoma-Specific Immune Response
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Melanoma

 

Last Updated: 20 Apr 2015

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Diagnostic Imaging Study for the Melanoma Advanced Imaging Dermatoscope (mAID)
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Melanoma

 

Last Updated: 25 Aug 2016

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