Melanoma

Common Name(s)

Melanoma

Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer that develops in cells that produce melanin (melanocytes), which give skin its color. Skin cancer is a life threatening condition, but it can be fully treated if detected early. Symptoms of melanoma include a change to an existing mole or the development of an abnormal growth on the skin. Mole changes that may indicate melanoma include asymmetrical shape, an irregular border, change in color, and change in size (larger than ¼ inch diameter). Although melanoma generally occurs in places with a lot of sun exposure, it can also occur in other areas, especially in people with darker skin. This type of melanoma, called hidden melanoma, can occur under a nail, in the mouth, or on the bottom of the foot. The cause of melanoma is not completely clear, but it is likely due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. UV radiation, from the sun or tanning beds, is considered the leading cause of melanoma. Risk factors include fair skin, a history of sunburn, excessive UV light exposure, living at high elevation, unusual number of moles, family history of melanoma, and a weakened immune system.

A doctor, usually a dermatologist, can identify signs of melanoma by examining the skin. Removal (biopsy) and examination under the microscope (pathology) of the affected area is used to confirm the diagnosis. Like many forms of cancer, there are many treatment options available. Early-stage melanomas are usually removed entirely during the biopsy and require no further treatment. Melanomas that have spread beyond the skin, to lymph nodes or other parts of the body, will need additional treatments which may include surgery to remove affected lymph nodes, chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy the cancer cells, biological therapy to boost the immune system, and targeted therapy. If you have been diagnosed with melanoma, speak with your doctor about the current treatment options.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Melanoma" for support, advocacy or research.

Cancer Hope Network

To provide one-on-one support to people undergoing treatment for cancer and to their families. We provide this support by training individuals who have recovered from cancer and matching them with cancer patients currently undergoing a similar experience. Through this matching process, we strive to instill hope and to make a difference in their fight against cancer.

Last Updated: 29 Jul 2015

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Melanoma International Foundation

The mission of the Melanoma International Foundation is to develop personalized strategies with patients so they may live longer, better lives.

Last Updated: 29 Jun 2015

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Melanoma" for support, advocacy or research.

Cancer Hope Network

To provide one-on-one support to people undergoing treatment for cancer and to their families. We provide this support by training individuals who have recovered from cancer and matching them with cancer patients currently undergoing a similar experience. Through this matching process, we strive to instill hope and to make a difference in their fight against cancer.

http://www.CancerHopeNetwork.org

Last Updated: 29 Jul 2015

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Melanoma International Foundation

The mission of the Melanoma International Foundation is to develop personalized strategies with patients so they may live longer, better lives.

http://www.melanomainternational.org

Last Updated: 29 Jun 2015

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Melanoma" returned 10671 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Chaetocin induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells through the generation of reactive oxygen species and the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, and exerts its anti-tumor activity in vivo.
 

Author(s): Xinming Han, Yan Han, Yongsheng Zheng, Qiang Sun, Tao Ma, Junyi Zhang, Lianji Xu

Journal:

 

Chaetocin is a small-molecule natural product produced by Chaetomium species fungi, and it has a potent anti-proliferative pharmacological activity on various cancer cells. However, the effect of chaetocin on anti-melanoma pharmacological role has not been investigated. Therefore, ...

Last Updated: 18 Apr 2017

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Sex differences in the association of cutaneous melanoma incidence rates and geographic ultraviolet light exposure.
 

Author(s): Feng Liu-Smith, Ahmed Majid Farhat, Anthony Arce, Argyrios Ziogas, Thomas Taylor, Zi Wang, Vandy Yourk, Jing Liu, Jun Wu, Archana J McEligot, Hoda Anton-Culver, Frank L Meyskens

Journal: J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.. 2017 Mar;76(3):499-505.e3.

 

Cutaneous melanoma (CM) incidence rates continue to increase, and the reasons are unknown. Previously, we reported a unique age-specific sex difference in melanoma that suggested additional causes other than solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation.

Last Updated: 17 Apr 2017

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Diffuse melanosis cutis related to dermal micrometastases as the first clinical symptom of distant metastatic malignant melanoma: Case report.
 

Author(s): Joanna Maj, Alina Jankowska-Konsur, Joanna Gruber, Zdzisław Woźniak, Piotr Nockowski, Anita Hryncewicz-Gwóźdź

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Apr;96(15):e6470.

 

Diffuse melanosis cutis (DMC) is a very rare sign of malignant melanoma progression. The condition usually develops after approximately one year from melanoma diagnosis in a patient with metastatic tumors and after anticancer treatment with cytostatic medications.

Last Updated: 13 Apr 2017

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Melanoma" returned 845 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Progressive visual disturbance and enlarging prolactinoma caused by melanoma metastasis: A case report and literature review.
 

Author(s): Chuanwei Yang, Ling Liu, Xiaoqiang Lan, Shiqiang Zhang, Xinyu Li, Bo Zhang

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Apr;96(14):e6483.

 

Melanoma metastases to the pituitary adenoma (MMPA) are extremely rare, with only 1 reported case. To date, the melanoma metastasis to the existing prolactinoma has not been reported in literatures.

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2017

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Function and Clinical Implications of Long Non-Coding RNAs in Melanoma.
 

Author(s): Georg Richtig, Barbara Ehall, Erika Richtig, Ariane Aigelsreiter, Tony Gutschner, Martin Pichler

Journal:

 

Metastatic melanoma is the most deadly type of skin cancer. Despite the success of immunotherapy and targeted agents, the majority of patients experience disease recurrence upon treatment and die due to their disease. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a new subclass of non-protein ...

Last Updated: 28 Mar 2017

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Neoplastic Meningitis Due to Lung, Breast, and Melanoma Metastases.
 

Author(s): Emilie Le Rhun, Sophie Taillibert, Marc C Chamberlain

Journal: Cancer Control. 2017 Jan;24(1):22-32.

 

Neoplastic meningitis, a central nervous system (CNS) complication of cancer metastatic to the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is relevant to oncologists due to the impact of the disease on patient quality of life and survival rates.

Last Updated: 8 Feb 2017

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Prospective Melanoma Database
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Melanoma

 

Last Updated: 25 Aug 2016

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LY3022855 With BRAF/MEK Inhibition in Patients With Melanoma
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Melanoma

 

Last Updated: 5 Apr 2017

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Diagnostic Imaging Study for the Melanoma Advanced Imaging Dermatoscope (mAID)
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Melanoma

 

Last Updated: 25 Aug 2016

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