Melioidosis

Common Name(s)

Melioidosis, Whitmore's disease

Melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by a bacteria found in contaminated soil and water. It is a disease that is especially common in Thailand and northern Australia, but also problematic in tropical areas such as the South Pacific, Africa or India. The bacteria linked with melioidosis is found in soil, rice paddies, or still waters in these areas. A person may become infected by inhaling contaminated dust or water particles, by drinking contaminated water, or by having contaminated soil or water enter the body through an open wound or scratch. Person-to-person spread of the disease is rare.

Common symptoms of melioidosis may include shortness of breath, cough, and fever. Additionally, the condition may cause a variety of breathing illnesses from mild bronchitis, or more seriously, pneumonia. A skin infection may develop if an opening in the skin is contaminated. This area can then swell and form an ulcer (sore) or an abscess (pus buildup under the skin). In more severe cases of melioidosis, symptoms may also include weight loss, disorientation, or seizures. Melioidosis symptoms are usually noticed within two to four weeks after infection, but can show up as early as the day after to as late as many years after. Diagnosis is usually made by examining blood and urine samples.

Individuals with other preexisting conditions that weaken the immune system, such as diabetes or AIDS, are more likely to get infected. These individuals should avoid soil and water in tropical farm areas that may have been contaminated with the bacteria. If left untreated, melioidosis can be fatal. However, this disease is treatable with medication. Therefore, if you believe you have melioidosis, contact your doctor so you may begin treatment as soon as possible.

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Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Melioidosis" for support, advocacy or research.

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Melioidosis" returned 305 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Comparison of O-polysaccharide and hemolysin co-regulated protein as target antigens for serodiagnosis of melioidosis.
 

Author(s): Apinya Pumpuang, Susanna J Dunachie, Phornpun Phokrai, Kemajittra Jenjaroen, Kitisak Sintiprungrat, Siriphan Boonsilp, Paul J Brett, Mary N Burtnick, Narisara Chantratita

Journal:

 

Melioidosis is a severe disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. Clinical manifestations are diverse and acute infections require immediate treatment with effective antibiotics. While culture is the current diagnostic standard, it is time-consuming and has low sensitivity. In ...

Last Updated: 30 Mar 2017

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Osteoarticular and soft-tissue melioidosis in Malaysia: clinical characteristics and molecular typing of the causative agent.
 

Author(s): AbdelRahman Mohammad Zueter, Mahmoud Abumarzouq, Mohd Imran Yusof, Wan Faisham Wan Ismail, Azian Harun

Journal:

 

Melioidosis involving bone, joints, and soft tissue is rare and reported usually following dissemination of disease from infection elsewhere in the body; to a lesser degree, it can also be reported as the primary manifestation of melioidosis.

Last Updated: 31 Jan 2017

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Melioidosis" returned 24 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Melioidosis in Travelers: Review of the Literature.
 

Author(s): Michael Dan

Journal: J Travel Med. ;22(6):410-4.

 

Melioidosis is a bacterial infection endemic essentially in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In temperate areas, the infection is extremely rare and is almost always imported by travelers or immigrants. The infection may affect almost any organ in the body, with various degrees of severity.

Last Updated: 27 Oct 2015

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A Review of Melioidosis Cases in the Americas.
 

Author(s): Tina J Benoit, David D Blaney, Thomas J Doker, Jay E Gee, Mindy G Elrod, Dionne B Rolim, Timothy J J Inglis, Alex R Hoffmaster, William A Bower, Henry T Walke

Journal: Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.. 2015 Dec;93(6):1134-9.

 

Melioidosis is a bacterial infection caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, a gram-negative saprophytic bacillus. Cases occur sporadically in the Americas with an increasing number of cases observed among people with no travel history to endemic countries. To better understand the incidence ...

Last Updated: 15 Dec 2015

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Consensus on the development of vaccines against naturally acquired melioidosis.
 

Author(s): Direk Limmathurotsakul, Simon G P Funnell, Alfredo G Torres, Lisa A Morici, Paul J Brett, Susanna Dunachie, Timothy Atkins, Daniel M Altmann, Gregory Bancroft, Sharon J Peacock,

Journal: Emerging Infect. Dis.. 2015 Jun;21(6):.

 

Several candidates for a vaccine against Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causal bacterium of melioidosis, have been developed, and a rational approach is now needed to select and advance candidates for testing in relevant nonhuman primate models and in human clinical trials. Development ...

Last Updated: 21 May 2015

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Clinical Presentation of Melioidosis in Head and Neck Region
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Melioidosis; Head and Neck Infection

 

Last Updated: 8 Feb 2017

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Study to Obtain Blood and Voided Urine Samples to Improve the Diagnosis of Melioidosis
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Melioidosis; Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome; Suspected or Confirmed Bloodstream Infections

 

Last Updated: 8 Feb 2017

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