Meningitis

Common Name(s)

Meningitis

Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges) that is caused by an infection. The main symptoms of meningitis include headache, fever, and stiff neck, which can often be confused with the flu (influenza). Meningitis is typically caused by a viral infection. However, bacterial infections, fungal infections, chemical reactions, drug allergies, some types of cancer, and inflammatory diseases can also cause meningitis. The severity, outcome and, treatment plan depend on the cause of the infection. Viral meningitis is usually caused by a group of viruses known as enteroviruses, and it is contracted mostly during the late summer and early fall. Bacterial meningitis can be caused by any number of bacteria, but the most common include pneumococcus, meningococcus, haemophilus, and listeria.

In addition to headache, fever, and stiff neck, additional symptoms can include vomiting, trouble sleeping or staying awake, sensitivity to light and seizures. Risk factors for meningitis include living in crowded conditions, not receiving immunizations, being pregnant, and having a weak immune system. Meningitis is usually diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures (to see if bacteria is present in your blood), and imaging of the head (using x-rays and CT scans) to look for swelling or inflammation. Most cases of meningitis can be diagnosed by removing a small amount of spinal fluid (spinal tap or lumbar puncture) to look for evidence of an infection or inflammation. Treatment depends on the cause of the meningitis. Bacterial meningitis calls for immediate treatment with antibiotics to get rid of the infection and steroids to reduce the inflammation. Most cases of viral meningitis improve without treatment. Fungal meningitis is treated with antifungal medications. If you or someone you know have signs or symptoms of meningitis, talk to your physician immediately.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Meningitis" for support, advocacy or research.

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Meningitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Our mission is to support sufferers of meningitis and their families through support groups, advocate for advanced research for the prevention and the long term effects of various meningitis strains as well as facilitating programs to educate the public

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2014

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Meningitis" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
Meningitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Our mission is to support sufferers of meningitis and their families through support groups, advocate for advanced research for the prevention and the long term effects of various meningitis strains as well as facilitating programs to educate the public

http://www.musa.org

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2014

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Meningitis" returned 2997 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Neoplastic Meningitis: One of the Last Frontiers of Oncology.
 

Author(s): Frank D Vrionis

Journal: Cancer Control. 2017 Jan;24(1):4-5.

 

Last Updated: 8 Feb 2017

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Surgical Resection during Chemotherapy of Pulmonary Cryptococcoma in a Patient with Cryptococcal Meningitis.
 

Author(s): Yuji Tanaka, Kazuo Satomi

Journal: Intern. Med.. ;56(1):91-93.

 

We herein report the case of a 72-year-old-man with pulmonary cryptococcoma along with cryptococcal meningitis who underwent surgery for pulmonary lesions while receiving chemotherapy. We noted two major clinical issues. First, the presence of pulmonary cryptococcoma had a detrimental ...

Last Updated: 4 Jan 2017

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Three cases of mumps virus and enterovirus coinfection in children with enteroviral meningitis.
 

Author(s): Mojtaba Rasti, Manoochehr Makvandi, Niloofar Neisi, Azarakhsh Azaran, Nasrin Rastegarvand, Davod Khalafkhany, Emad Jahangirnezhad, Ali Teimoori, Maryam Hadian, Abdolnabi Shabani, Ahmad Shamsizadeh, Roya Nikfar, Mehran Varnaseri

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Dec;95(49):e5610.

 

Several viruses are responsible for aseptic meningitis; however, in the region of Southwest Iran, the role played by each virus is still not very well known. The aim of this study is to determine the relative frequencies of mumps virus, herpes viruses, and enteroviruses, as well as ...

Last Updated: 8 Dec 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Meningitis" returned 205 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Diagnosis and Management of Leukemic and Lymphomatous Meningitis.
 

Author(s): Hemant Murthy, Claudio Anasetti, Ernesto Ayala

Journal: Cancer Control. 2017 Jan;24(1):33-41.

 

Leukemic and lymphomatous meningitis is a major presentation of primary or secondary central nervous system (CNS) involvement by aggressive lymphomas or acute leukemia.

Last Updated: 8 Feb 2017

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Neoplastic Meningitis Due to Lung, Breast, and Melanoma Metastases.
 

Author(s): Emilie Le Rhun, Sophie Taillibert, Marc C Chamberlain

Journal: Cancer Control. 2017 Jan;24(1):22-32.

 

Neoplastic meningitis, a central nervous system (CNS) complication of cancer metastatic to the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is relevant to oncologists due to the impact of the disease on patient quality of life and survival rates.

Last Updated: 8 Feb 2017

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Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Radiological Findings of Neoplastic Meningitis.
 

Author(s): Georgios Rigakos, Chrysoula I Liakou, Naillid Felipe, Dennis Orkoulas-Razis, Evangelia Razis

Journal: Cancer Control. 2017 Jan;24(1):9-21.

 

Neoplastic meningitis is a complication of solid and hematological malignancies. It consists of the spread of malignant cells to the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space and their dissemination within the cerebrospinal fluid.

Last Updated: 8 Feb 2017

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Daptomycin in Pediatric Patients With Bacterial Meningitis
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Meningitis

 

Last Updated: 10 Dec 2015

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Last Updated: 19 Feb 2016

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Ciprofloxacin for the Prevention of Meningococcal Meningitis
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Meningitis, Meningococcal

 

Last Updated: 21 Sep 2016

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