Meningitis

Common Name(s)

Meningitis

Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meninges) that is caused by an infection. The main symptoms of meningitis include headache, fever, and stiff neck, which can often be confused with the flu (influenza). Meningitis is typically caused by a viral infection. However, bacterial infections, fungal infections, chemical reactions, drug allergies, some types of cancer, and inflammatory diseases can also cause meningitis. The severity, outcome and, treatment plan depend on the cause of the infection. Viral meningitis is usually caused by a group of viruses known as enteroviruses, and it is contracted mostly during the late summer and early fall. Bacterial meningitis can be caused by any number of bacteria, but the most common include pneumococcus, meningococcus, haemophilus, and listeria.

In addition to headache, fever, and stiff neck, additional symptoms can include vomiting, trouble sleeping or staying awake, sensitivity to light and seizures. Risk factors for meningitis include living in crowded conditions, not receiving immunizations, being pregnant, and having a weak immune system. Meningitis is usually diagnosed through a variety of tests, including blood cultures (to see if bacteria is present in your blood), and imaging of the head (using x-rays and CT scans) to look for swelling or inflammation. Most cases of meningitis can be diagnosed by removing a small amount of spinal fluid (spinal tap or lumbar puncture) to look for evidence of an infection or inflammation. Treatment depends on the cause of the meningitis. Bacterial meningitis calls for immediate treatment with antibiotics to get rid of the infection and steroids to reduce the inflammation. Most cases of viral meningitis improve without treatment. Fungal meningitis is treated with antifungal medications. If you or someone you know have signs or symptoms of meningitis, talk to your physician immediately.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Meningitis" for support, advocacy or research.

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Meningitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Our mission is to support sufferers of meningitis and their families through support groups, advocate for advanced research for the prevention and the long term effects of various meningitis strains as well as facilitating programs to educate the public

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2014

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Meningitis" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
Meningitis Foundation of America, Inc.

Our mission is to support sufferers of meningitis and their families through support groups, advocate for advanced research for the prevention and the long term effects of various meningitis strains as well as facilitating programs to educate the public

http://www.musa.org

Last Updated: 8 Oct 2014

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Meningitis" returned 3018 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Immunological diagnosis as an adjunctive tool for an early diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis of an immune competent child in a low tuberculosis endemic country: a case report.
 

Author(s): Serena Vita, Camilla Ajassa, Emanuela Caraffa, Miriam Lichtner, Claudia Mascia, Fabio Mengoni, Maria Grazia Paglia, Cristina Mancarella, Davide Colistra, Claudio Di Biasi, Rosa Maria Ciardi, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Vincenzo Vullo

Journal:

 

Pediatric tuberculous meningitis is a highly morbid, often fatal disease. Its prompt diagnosis and treatment saves lives, in fact delays in the initiation of therapy have been associated with high mortality rates.

Last Updated: 14 Mar 2017

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Mean platelet volume in the differential diagnosis of tuberculous and bacterial meningitis.
 

Author(s): Carlos Rodrigo Camara-Lemarroy, Guillermo Delgado-Garcia, Juan Gilberto De la Cruz-Gonzalez, Hector Jorge Villareal-Velazquez, Fernando Gongora-Rivera

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Mean platelet volume (MPV) has been shown to reflect the inflammatory burden in different inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Our objective was to analyze the MPV in patients with tuberculous (TBM) and bacterial meningitis (BM).

Last Updated: 1 Mar 2017

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Review of meningitis surveillance data, upper West Region, Ghana 2009-2013.
 

Author(s): Robert Domo Nuoh, Kofi Mensah Nyarko, Priscilla Nortey, Samuel Oko Sackey, Noora Charles Lwanga, Donne Kofi Ameme, Culbert Nuolabong, Marijanatu Abdulai, Fredrick Wurapa, Edwin Afari

Journal:

 

The Upper West region of Ghana is within the meningitis belt. Analysis of long term surveillance data is necessary for understanding changes in the disease occurrence. We analyzed five years of surveillance data to describe by person, place and time and to determine trends in meningitis.

Last Updated: 17 Feb 2017

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Meningitis" returned 207 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Diagnosis and Management of Leukemic and Lymphomatous Meningitis.
 

Author(s): Hemant Murthy, Claudio Anasetti, Ernesto Ayala

Journal: Cancer Control. 2017 Jan;24(1):33-41.

 

Leukemic and lymphomatous meningitis is a major presentation of primary or secondary central nervous system (CNS) involvement by aggressive lymphomas or acute leukemia.

Last Updated: 8 Feb 2017

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Neoplastic Meningitis Due to Lung, Breast, and Melanoma Metastases.
 

Author(s): Emilie Le Rhun, Sophie Taillibert, Marc C Chamberlain

Journal: Cancer Control. 2017 Jan;24(1):22-32.

 

Neoplastic meningitis, a central nervous system (CNS) complication of cancer metastatic to the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), is relevant to oncologists due to the impact of the disease on patient quality of life and survival rates.

Last Updated: 8 Feb 2017

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Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, and Radiological Findings of Neoplastic Meningitis.
 

Author(s): Georgios Rigakos, Chrysoula I Liakou, Naillid Felipe, Dennis Orkoulas-Razis, Evangelia Razis

Journal: Cancer Control. 2017 Jan;24(1):9-21.

 

Neoplastic meningitis is a complication of solid and hematological malignancies. It consists of the spread of malignant cells to the leptomeninges and subarachnoid space and their dissemination within the cerebrospinal fluid.

Last Updated: 8 Feb 2017

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

There are currently no related results available in Genetic Testing Registry.

 
 
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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Daptomycin in Pediatric Patients With Bacterial Meningitis
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Meningitis

 

Last Updated: 10 Dec 2015

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Ciprofloxacin for the Prevention of Meningococcal Meningitis
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Meningitis, Meningococcal

 

Last Updated: 21 Sep 2016

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Vitamin d Levels in Children With Bacterial Meningitis
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Bacterial Meningitis

 

Last Updated: 5 Jun 2015

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