Menopause

Common Name(s)

Menopause

Menopause is part of the natural process of female aging. It is defined as starting 12 months after a woman’s last menstrual cycle and is measured from her last period. Menopause typically happens when a woman is in her 40s and 50s. There is a period before menopause, perimenopause, when the ovaries slowly lessen their production of estrogen (the female sex hormone).

Symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, irritability, trouble sleeping and night sweats, anxiety, vaginal dryness, and weight gain as metabolism slows. Some of these symptoms may start during perimenopause along with irregular and skipped periods. Situations that may cause menopause to begin earlier include chemotherapy and radiation therapy, hysterectomy (removal of uterus), and primary ovarian insufficiency (ovaries stop producing a normal level of estrogen). The number and severity of symptoms experienced by women vary greatly.

Following menopause, the risks for heart disease, osteoporosis (bones become brittle), and loss of bladder control increase. If you experience bleeding after menopause, check with your doctor or obstetrician as this may be a sign of uterine cancer.

Menopause can usually be self-diagnosed from its symptoms, but a hormone test can confirm lowered levels of estrogen and increased levels of follicle stimulating hormone. Treatments for symptoms include application of vaginal estrogen to reduce dryness, antidepressants, and other drugs as well as natural remedies. Hormone replacement theory has both risks and benefits and you should be fully informed of both before making your decision. Those experiencing few or mild symptoms may manage their symptoms with lifestyle changes. Continue to talk with your doctor, gynecologist or midwife as your symptoms may change over time and new treatment options may become available. Support groups are available for more resources and to connect with other woman undergoing menopause.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Menopause" for support, advocacy or research.

There are currently no organizations listed in Disease InfoSearch that support this condition. Create a listing.

 

 

General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Menopause" returned 665 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Grandmothering and cognitive resources are required for the emergence of menopause and extensive post-reproductive lifespan.
 

Author(s): Carla Aimé, Jean-Baptiste André, Michel Raymond

Journal:

 

Menopause, the permanent cessation of ovulation, occurs in humans well before the end of the expected lifespan, leading to an extensive post-reproductive period which remains a puzzle for evolutionary biologists. All human populations display this particularity; thus, it is difficult ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Efficacy and tolerability of a plant-based, multi-component cream (Ginetrox®) in vulvovaginal disorders of the genitourinary syndrome during menopause.
 

Author(s): Roberto Marrai, Giovanni Lissi, Stefano Togni, Giada Maramaldi, Marco Barbara, Luca Giacomelli

Journal: Minerva Ginecol. 2017 Jun;69(3):245-249.

 

Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) is a symptomatic condition including vaginal dryness, irritation, dyspareunia and recurrent urinary tract infections which affects 40-54% of post-menopausal women. Although several estrogen-based therapies are available, it is generally preferable ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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[Menopause and cardiovascular risk].
 

Author(s): Eugenio Arteaga Urzúa

Journal: Rev Med Chil. 2016 11;144(11):1375-1376.

 

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Menopause" returned 126 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Effect of acupuncture on hot flush and menopause symptoms in breast cancer- A systematic review and meta-analysis.
 

Author(s): Tsai-Ju Chien, Chung-Hua Hsu, Chia-Yu Liu, Ching-Ju Fang

Journal:

 

Many breast cancer patients suffer from hot flush and medical menopause as side effects of treatment. Some patients undergo acupuncture, rather than hormone therapy, to relieve these symptoms, but the efficacy of acupuncture is uncertain. This meta-analysis evaluated the efficacy ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Hormone replacement therapy in young women with primary ovarian insufficiency and early menopause.
 

Author(s): Shannon D Sullivan, Philip M Sarrel, Lawrence M Nelson

Journal: Fertil. Steril.. 2016 Dec;106(7):1588-1599.

 

Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a rare but important cause of ovarian hormone deficiency and infertility in women. In addition to causing infertility, POI is associated with multiple health risks, including bothersome menopausal symptoms, decreased bone density and increased ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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The polymorphism of estrogen receptor α is important for metabolic consequences associated with menopause.
 

Author(s): Jarosław Pinkas, Mariusz Gujski, Anna Wierzbińska-Stępniak, Alfred Owoc, Iwona Bojar

Journal: Endokrynol Pol. 2016 ;67(6):608-614.

 

Menopause is associated with multiple health and metabolic consequences resulting from the decrease in estrogens level. Women at postmenopausal age are burdened with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, and the main cause of mortality in this group is ischemic heart disease. ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Menopausal Sleep Fragmentation and Body Fat Gain
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Menopause

 

Last Updated: 14 Jul 2017

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Behavioral Treatment of Menopausal Insomnia; Sleep and Daytime Outcomes
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Menopause

 

Last Updated: 8 Aug 2017

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Evaluating a Cognitive Remediation Intervention for Women During the Menopausal Transition
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Menopause

 

Last Updated: 11 Oct 2017

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