Menopause

Common Name(s)

Menopause

Menopause is part of the natural process of female aging. It is defined as starting 12 months after a woman’s last menstrual cycle and is measured from her last period. Menopause typically happens when a woman is in her 40s and 50s. There is a period before menopause, perimenopause, when the ovaries slowly lessen their production of estrogen (the female sex hormone).

Symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, irritability, trouble sleeping and night sweats, anxiety, vaginal dryness, and weight gain as metabolism slows. Some of these symptoms may start during perimenopause along with irregular and skipped periods. Situations that may cause menopause to begin earlier include chemotherapy and radiation therapy, hysterectomy (removal of uterus), and primary ovarian insufficiency (ovaries stop producing a normal level of estrogen). The number and severity of symptoms experienced by women vary greatly.

Following menopause, the risks for heart disease, osteoporosis (bones become brittle), and loss of bladder control increase. If you experience bleeding after menopause, check with your doctor or obstetrician as this may be a sign of uterine cancer.

Menopause can usually be self-diagnosed from its symptoms, but a hormone test can confirm lowered levels of estrogen and increased levels of follicle stimulating hormone. Treatments for symptoms include application of vaginal estrogen to reduce dryness, antidepressants, and other drugs as well as natural remedies. Hormone replacement theory has both risks and benefits and you should be fully informed of both before making your decision. Those experiencing few or mild symptoms may manage their symptoms with lifestyle changes. Continue to talk with your doctor, gynecologist or midwife as your symptoms may change over time and new treatment options may become available. Support groups are available for more resources and to connect with other woman undergoing menopause.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Menopause" for support, advocacy or research.

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Menopause" for support, advocacy or research.

There are currently no organizations listed in Disease InfoSearch that support this condition. Create a listing.

 

 

General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Menopause" returned 633 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Differential Item Functioning of the Psychological Domain of the Menopause Rating Scale.
 

Author(s): Alvaro Monterrosa-Castro, Katherin Portela-Buelvas, Heidi C Oviedo, Edwin Herazo, Adalberto Campo-Arias

Journal: Biomed Res Int. 2016 ;2016():8790691.

 

Introduction. Quality of life could be quantified with the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), which evaluates the severity of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in menopause. However, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis has not been applied previously. Objective. ...

Last Updated: 16 Nov 2016

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[Relationship of menopause with cardiovascular disease and related metabolic disorders].
 

Author(s): L He, X Tang, Y H Hu

Journal: Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao. 2016 Jun;48(3):448-53.

 

To explore the associations of menopause with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related metabolic disorders (including hypertension, diabetes or higher blood sugar, obesity, dyslipidemia) in Chinese females aged 45-59 years .

Last Updated: 20 Jun 2016

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Patient question set proliferation: scope and informatics challenges of patient question set management in a large multispecialty practice with case examples pertaining to tobacco use, menopause, and Urology and Orthopedics specialties.
 

Author(s): Sarah J Vande Loo, Frederick North

Journal:

 

Health care institutions have patient question sets that can expand over time. For a multispecialty group, each specialty might have multiple question sets. As a result, question set governance can be challenging. Knowledge of the counts, variability and repetition of questions in ...

Last Updated: 12 Apr 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Menopause" returned 115 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Enhancing Care of the Survivor of Gynecologic Cancer: Managing the Menopause and Radiation Toxicity.
 

Author(s): Linda Van Le, Mary McCormack

Journal: Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2016 ;35():e270-5.

 

It is expected that there will be 290,000 cases of gynecologic cancers in 2016. Of these cancers, 60,000 will be endometrial and 22,000 will be ovarian-the two most common gynecologic cancers. Endometrial and ovarian cancers occur in menopausal women with mean ages of 60 and 63, respectively. ...

Last Updated: 2 Jun 2016

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Epidemiology of Uterine Fibroids: From Menarche to Menopause.
 

Author(s): Lauren A Wise, Shannon K Laughlin-Tommaso

Journal: Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Mar;59(1):2-24.

 

Uterine leiomyomata (UL) have a substantial impact on women's health, but relatively few studies have identified opportunities for primary prevention of these neoplasms. Most established risk factors are not modifiable, including premenopausal age, African ancestry, age at menarche, ...

Last Updated: 30 Jan 2016

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Treating vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause: how important is vaginal lubricant and moisturizer composition?
 

Author(s): D Edwards, N Panay

Journal: Climacteric. 2016 Apr;19(2):151-61.

 

Vaginal dryness is a common condition that is particularly prevalent during and after the menopause, and is one of the symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause. The impact of vaginal dryness on interpersonal relationships, quality of life, daily activities, ...

Last Updated: 25 Feb 2016

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

There are currently no related results available in GeneReviews.

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Menopausal Sleep Fragmentation and Body Fat Gain
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Menopause

 

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2017

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A Pooled Analysis of the Data From Two Studies of Ammonium Succinate for Menopausal Symptoms
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Menopause Related Conditions

 

Last Updated: 8 Feb 2017

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Behavioral Treatment of Menopausal Insomnia; Sleep and Daytime Outcomes
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Menopause

 

Last Updated: 16 Aug 2016

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