Menopause

Common Name(s)

Menopause

Menopause is part of the natural process of female aging. It is defined as starting 12 months after a woman’s last menstrual cycle and is measured from her last period. Menopause typically happens when a woman is in her 40s and 50s. There is a period before menopause, perimenopause, when the ovaries slowly lessen their production of estrogen (the female sex hormone).

Symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, irritability, trouble sleeping and night sweats, anxiety, vaginal dryness, and weight gain as metabolism slows. Some of these symptoms may start during perimenopause along with irregular and skipped periods. Situations that may cause menopause to begin earlier include chemotherapy and radiation therapy, hysterectomy (removal of uterus), and primary ovarian insufficiency (ovaries stop producing a normal level of estrogen). The number and severity of symptoms experienced by women vary greatly.

Following menopause, the risks for heart disease, osteoporosis (bones become brittle), and loss of bladder control increase. If you experience bleeding after menopause, check with your doctor or obstetrician as this may be a sign of uterine cancer.

Menopause can usually be self-diagnosed from its symptoms, but a hormone test can confirm lowered levels of estrogen and increased levels of follicle stimulating hormone. Treatments for symptoms include application of vaginal estrogen to reduce dryness, antidepressants, and other drugs as well as natural remedies. Hormone replacement theory has both risks and benefits and you should be fully informed of both before making your decision. Those experiencing few or mild symptoms may manage their symptoms with lifestyle changes. Continue to talk with your doctor, gynecologist or midwife as your symptoms may change over time and new treatment options may become available. Support groups are available for more resources and to connect with other woman undergoing menopause.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Menopause" for support, advocacy or research.

There are currently no organizations listed in Disease InfoSearch that support this condition. Create a listing.

 

 

General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Menopause" returned 639 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Differential Item Functioning of the Psychological Domain of the Menopause Rating Scale.
 

Author(s): Alvaro Monterrosa-Castro, Katherin Portela-Buelvas, Heidi C Oviedo, Edwin Herazo, Adalberto Campo-Arias

Journal: Biomed Res Int. 2016 ;2016():8790691.

 

Introduction. Quality of life could be quantified with the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), which evaluates the severity of somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in menopause. However, differential item functioning (DIF) analysis has not been applied previously. Objective. ...

Last Updated: 16 Nov 2016

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The characteristics of osteoporotic patients in Graves' disease patients newly diagnosed after menopause: a prospective observational study.
 

Author(s): Ai Yoshihara, Jaeduk Yoshimura Noh, Koji Mukasa, Natsuko Watanabe, Kenji Iwaku, Hidemi Ohye, Miho Suzuki, Masako Matsumoto, Yo Kunii, Nami Suzuki, Kei Endo, Ruriko Suzuki, Naomi Hattori, Kiminori Sugino, Koichi Ito

Journal: Endocr. J.. 2016 Dec;63(12):1113-1122.

 

Overt hyperthyroidism is associated with reduced bone density. The extent of restoration of reduced bone density caused by hyperthyroidism in postmenopausal Graves' disease (GD) patients has not fully been investigated. We examined 85 newly diagnosed postmenopausal GD patients, and ...

Last Updated: 7 Sep 2016

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The association of depression status with menopause symptoms among rural midlife women in China.
 

Author(s): Hongyan Zang, Lianping He, Yan Chen, Jianfeng Ge, Yingshui Yao

Journal: Afr Health Sci. 2016 Mar;16(1):97-104.

 

This study aims to evaluate the association of depression with menopausal status and some menopause symptoms (vasomotor symptoms and poor sleep).

Last Updated: 30 Jun 2016

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Menopause" returned 117 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

The polymorphism of estrogen receptor α is important for metabolic consequences associated with menopause.
 

Author(s): Jarosław Pinkas, Mariusz Gujski, Anna Wierzbińska-Stępniak, Alfred Owoc, Iwona Bojar

Journal: Endokrynol Pol. 2016 ;67(6):608-614.

 

Menopause is associated with multiple health and metabolic consequences resulting from the decrease in estrogens level. Women at postmenopausal age are burdened with a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases, and the main cause of mortality in this group is ischemic heart disease. ...

Last Updated: 9 Nov 2016

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Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.
 

Author(s): Soheila Nazarpour, Masoumeh Simbar, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

Journal: Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Aug;55(4):480-7.

 

This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between ...

Last Updated: 3 Sep 2016

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Enhancing Care of the Survivor of Gynecologic Cancer: Managing the Menopause and Radiation Toxicity.
 

Author(s): Linda Van Le, Mary McCormack

Journal: Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2016 ;35():e270-5.

 

It is expected that there will be 290,000 cases of gynecologic cancers in 2016. Of these cancers, 60,000 will be endometrial and 22,000 will be ovarian-the two most common gynecologic cancers. Endometrial and ovarian cancers occur in menopausal women with mean ages of 60 and 63, respectively. ...

Last Updated: 2 Jun 2016

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Menopausal Sleep Fragmentation and Body Fat Gain
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Menopause

 

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2017

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A Pooled Analysis of the Data From Two Studies of Ammonium Succinate for Menopausal Symptoms
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Menopause Related Conditions

 

Last Updated: 8 Feb 2017

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Behavioral Treatment of Menopausal Insomnia; Sleep and Daytime Outcomes
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Menopause

 

Last Updated: 16 Aug 2016

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