Intellectual disability

Common Name(s)

Intellectual disability, Intellectual developmental disorder, Mental retardation

Intellectual disability, formerly known as mental retardation, is a condition that is apparent before the age of 18 and consists of both below-average intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. There are a number of causes of intellectual disability. Our understanding of the causes of intellectual disability focuses on the types of risk factors (biomedical, social, behavioral, and educational) and the timing of exposure (before, during, or after birth) to those factors.

Intellectual disability is often diagnosed during early childhood or the early school years. To make a diagnosis of intellectual disability, a psychologist or physician will use measures of intellectual functioning (mental capacity for learning, reasoning, problem solving, and so on, often known as an “IQ test”) and adaptive behavior, including skills related to using concepts (such as language, money, or time), social skills, and those practical skills needed to take care of one’s self.

There are many sources of information and support for people with intellectual disability and their families.

Source: American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Intellectual disability" for support, advocacy or research.

Mowat Wilson Support

We are a support group and website where families can share information about Mowat-Wilson Syndrome. Our website includes support group information, a forum, photos and profiles of children with MWS and parent survey pages. We want to help inform the public about this rare condition and to help those affected by it not feel so alone by giving them a place to exchange information and experiences with others in the same situation.

Last Updated: 6 Mar 2014

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Pediatric Brain Foundation

Pediatric Brain Foundation's Mission is Three-fold: 1. Expedite scientific research to find treatments and cures for ALL of the more than 14 million children, in the U.S. alone, living with some form of neurological disorder 2. Provide families and health care professionals with up-to-date information and resources on the latest discoveries in pediatric neurology 3. Educate the public and public officials on the critical importance of funding pediatric neurological research

Last Updated: 22 Apr 2015

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Simons VIP Connect

The Simons Variation in Individuals Project (Simons VIP) is an online community and research initiative. We provide a platform to partner families and researchers to better understand over 40 genetic changes (genomic variants) associated with features related to autism and developmental delay.

Last Updated: 20 Jul 2015

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VOR-Speaking up for people with intellectual & developmental disabilities

VOR is a national organization advocating for high quality care and human rights for all people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

Last Updated: 29 Apr 2014

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

Privately answer questions about your health. Let resources, you select, come to you.

Anonymously share and see how your answers compare with others with this condition while privately providing key pieces of information to medical researchers, disease advocacy groups, and others ONLY YOU select to help speed up cures and better alternatives.

 
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Intellectual disability" for support, advocacy or research.

Mowat Wilson Support

We are a support group and website where families can share information about Mowat-Wilson Syndrome. Our website includes support group information, a forum, photos and profiles of children with MWS and parent survey pages. We want to help inform the public about this rare condition and to help those affected by it not feel so alone by giving them a place to exchange information and experiences with others in the same situation.

http://www.mowatwilson.org

Last Updated: 6 Mar 2014

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Pediatric Brain Foundation

Pediatric Brain Foundation's Mission is Three-fold: 1. Expedite scientific research to find treatments and cures for ALL of the more than 14 million children, in the U.S. alone, living with some form of neurological disorder 2. Provide families and health care professionals with up-to-date information and resources on the latest discoveries in pediatric neurology 3. Educate the public and public officials on the critical importance of funding pediatric neurological research

http://www.pediatricbrainfoundation.org

Last Updated: 22 Apr 2015

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Simons VIP Connect

The Simons Variation in Individuals Project (Simons VIP) is an online community and research initiative. We provide a platform to partner families and researchers to better understand over 40 genetic changes (genomic variants) associated with features related to autism and developmental delay.

http://www.simonsvipconnect.org

Last Updated: 20 Jul 2015

View Details
VOR-Speaking up for people with intellectual & developmental disabilities

VOR is a national organization advocating for high quality care and human rights for all people with intellectual and developmental disabilities.

http://www.vor.net

Last Updated: 29 Apr 2014

View Details

 

General Support Organizations

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General Resources

Toolkit for Families

Advocacy resources for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities, including autism, and their families, guardians and advocates. Resources relate to residential choice, federal laws, cost comparisons, quality of care and more.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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Toolkit for Legislators, Policymakers, and Officials

Advocacy resources for legislators and policymakers re: to developmental disabilities, including autism, Resources relate to residential choice, federal laws, cost comparisons, quality of care and more.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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VOR Press Kit

VOR's 2014 Press Kit, a collection of written materials designed to introduce VOR to the media and others, is now available. For more information, please contact Julie Huso, Executive Director at jhuso@vor.net.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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Olmstead Resources

The Supreme Court, in its landmark Olmstead v. L.C.n decision, recognized the need for a range of services, based on individual choice and need, which respond to the varied and unique needs of the entire disability community.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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Learn About VOR

VOR's Mission, Policy and Positions, and more. Learn more about the only national non-profit organization advocating for high quality care and human rights based on individual choice and need.

Updated 29 Apr 2014

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Intellectual disability" returned 498 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Identification of a novel CTCF mutation responsible for syndromic intellectual disability - a case report.
 

Author(s): Fatma Bastaki, Pratibha Nair, Madiha Mohamed, Ethar Mustafa Malik, Mustafa Helmi, Mahmoud Taleb Al-Ali, Abdul Rezzak Hamzeh

Journal:

 

Autosomal dominant mental retardation 21 (MRD21) is a very rare condition, characterized by short stature, microcephaly, mild facial dysmorphisms and intellectual disability that ranged from mild to severe. MRD21 is caused by mutations in CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) and this was established ...

Last Updated: 16 Jun 2017

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Increase the risk of intellectual disability in children with scabies: A nationwide population-based cohort study.
 

Author(s): Jui-Ming Liu, Ren-Jun Hsu, Fung-Wei Chang, Chia-Lun Yeh, Chun-Fa Huang, Shu-Ting Chang, Nan-Chang Chiu, Hung-Yang Chang, Hsin Chi, Chien-Yu Lin

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Jun;96(23):e7108.

 

Scabies is a common and distressing disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis. Psychiatric disorder in childhood is an important disease and easily neglected. There are several similarities in scabies and psychiatric disorders in childhood (PDC). Both of them may present ...

Last Updated: 7 Jun 2017

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YY1 Haploinsufficiency Causes an Intellectual Disability Syndrome Featuring Transcriptional and Chromatin Dysfunction.
 

Author(s): Michele Gabriele, Anneke T Vulto-van Silfhout, Pierre-Luc Germain, Alessandro Vitriolo, Raman Kumar, Evelyn Douglas, Eric Haan, Kenjiro Kosaki, Toshiki Takenouchi, Anita Rauch, Katharina Steindl, Eirik Frengen, Doriana Misceo, Christeen Ramane J Pedurupillay, Petter Stromme, Jill A Rosenfeld, Yunru Shao, William J Craigen, Christian P Schaaf, David Rodriguez-Buritica, Laura Farach, Jennifer Friedman, Perla Thulin, Scott D McLean, Kimberly M Nugent, Jenny Morton, Jillian Nicholl, Joris Andrieux, Asbjørg Stray-Pedersen, Pascal Chambon, Sophie Patrier, Sally A Lynch, Susanne Kjaergaard, Pernille M Tørring, Charlotte Brasch-Andersen, Anne Ronan, Arie van Haeringen, Peter J Anderson, Zöe Powis, Han G Brunner, Rolph Pfundt, Janneke H M Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Bregje W M van Bon, Stefan Lelieveld, Christian Gilissen, Willy M Nillesen, Lisenka E L M Vissers, Jozef Gecz, David A Koolen, Giuseppe Testa, Bert B A de Vries

Journal: Am. J. Hum. Genet.. 2017 Jun;100(6):907-925.

 

Yin and yang 1 (YY1) is a well-known zinc-finger transcription factor with crucial roles in normal development and malignancy. YY1 acts both as a repressor and as an activator of gene expression. We have identified 23 individuals with de novo mutations or deletions of YY1 and phenotypic ...

Last Updated: 2 Jun 2017

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Intellectual disability" returned 58 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Genetic Studies in Intellectual Disability and Behavioral Impairment.
 

Author(s): Hoda Mehregan, Hossein Najmabadi, Kimia Kahrizi

Journal: Arch Iran Med. 2016 May;19(5):363-75.

 

 Intellectual Disability (ID, also known as mental retardation) is a debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder affecting nearly 1% of the general population worldwide. Occurrence of behavioral disorders in individuals with ID is four times higher than that in the general population. ...

Last Updated: 15 May 2016

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Prenatal, Perinatal and Neonatal Risk Factors for Intellectual Disability: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis.
 

Author(s): Jichong Huang, Tingting Zhu, Yi Qu, Dezhi Mu

Journal:

 

The etiology of non-genetic intellectual disability (ID) is not fully known, and we aimed to identify the prenatal, perinatal and neonatal risk factors for ID.

Last Updated: 26 Apr 2016

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Case report of novel DYRK1A mutations in 2 individuals with syndromic intellectual disability and a review of the literature.
 

Author(s): Stephanie M Luco, Daniela Pohl, Erick Sell, Justin D Wagner, David A Dyment, Hussein Daoud

Journal:

 

Chromosomal deletions encompassing DYRK1A have been associated with intellectual disability for several years. More recently, point mutations in DYRK1A have been shown to be responsible for a recognizable syndrome characterized by microcephaly, developmental delay and intellectual ...

Last Updated: 29 Feb 2016

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Games With Virtual Reality in Intellectual Disabilities
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Intellectual Disability

 

Last Updated: 14 Aug 2017

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Last Updated: 31 Jul 2017

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Various Type of Genetic Events in Patients With Intellectual Disability
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Intellectual Disability

 

Last Updated: 23 Aug 2016

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