Kidney stones

Common Name(s)

Kidney stones, Nephrolithiasis

Kidney stones, also known as renal calculi, are small stones that form in the kidneys from minerals and salts. They can be very small or as large as a golf ball and can affect the kidneys, ureters, or bladder (urinary tract). Kidney stones may not cause any issues unless they move around in the kidneys or the ureter. Symptoms can include severe pain in side and lower back, pain in urination, different colored and foul-smelling urine, vomiting, constant urination, and feeling sick (nausea).

Kidney stones have many different causes. They typically form because there is too much of a stone forming substance for the fluid in the urine to dilute. These substances, which are usually calcium, oxalate, or uric acid, can then crystalize to form the stones. Certain conditions, such as gout, cystinuria, urinary tract infections and rare genetic conditions, can also increase the risk for certain types of kidney stones. Finding out what the kidney stone is made from can help determine the cause of the stone and may also help with treatment. If you have symptoms of a kidney stone, there are a number of tests your doctor may use to confirm the diagnosis. These can include blood and urine tests to look for high levels of stone forming substances and imaging (X-rays and CT) to find the location of the stones. The treatment used depends on the size and location of the kidney stone. Your doctor may recommend just drinking water and managing the pain with medication until the stones are passed in the urine. If the stone is large, your doctor may use sounds wave to break up the stone as well as surgery or a scope to remove the stones. If you or your child has been diagnosed with kidney stones, talk with a specialist to find out the reason for kidney stones and to determine the treatment plan that is best for you.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Kidney stones" for support, advocacy or research.

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National Kidney Foundation

The National Kidney Foundation, a major voluntary nonprofit health organization, is dedicated to preventing kidney and urinary tract diseases, improving the health and well-being of individuals and families affected by kidney disease and increasing the availability of all organs for transplantation.

Last Updated: 23 Jun 2015

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Kidney stones" for support, advocacy or research.

Logo
National Kidney Foundation

The National Kidney Foundation, a major voluntary nonprofit health organization, is dedicated to preventing kidney and urinary tract diseases, improving the health and well-being of individuals and families affected by kidney disease and increasing the availability of all organs for transplantation.

http://www.kidney.org

Last Updated: 23 Jun 2015

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Kidney stones" returned 150 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Risk factors for gallstones and kidney stones in a cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.
 

Author(s): Stefania Fagagnini, Henriette Heinrich, Jean-BenoƮt Rossel, Luc Biedermann, Pascal Frei, Jonas Zeitz, Marianne Spalinger, Edouard Battegay, Lukas Zimmerli, Stephan R Vavricka, Gerhard Rogler, Michael Scharl, Benjamin Misselwitz

Journal:

 

Gallstones and kidney stones are known complications of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Risk factors have been insufficiently studied and explanatory studies date back up to 30 years. It remains unclear, whether improved treatment options also influenced risk factors for these complications.

Last Updated: 12 Oct 2017

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Kidney stones may increase the risk of coronary heart disease and stroke: A PRISMA-Compliant meta-analysis.
 

Author(s): Jian-Ping Peng, Hang Zheng

Journal: Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Aug;96(34):e7898.

 

We aimed to quantitatively assess the potential relationship between kidney stones and coronary heart disease or stroke.

Last Updated: 23 Aug 2017

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Topiramate induced metabolic acidosis and kidney stones - a case study.
 

Author(s): Tomas Salek, Ivan Andel, Irena Kurfurstova

Journal: Biochem Med (Zagreb). 2017 Jun;27(2):404-410.

 

The aim of this study is to present a case of 44 years old woman with topiramate induced metabolic acidosis and kidney stones.

Last Updated: 11 Jul 2017

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Kidney stones" returned 28 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and kidney stones in long-term studies of vitamin D supplementation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
 

Author(s): Zarintaj Malihi, Zhenqiang Wu, Alistair W Stewart, Carlene Mm Lawes, Robert Scragg

Journal: Am. J. Clin. Nutr.. 2016 Oct;104(4):1039-1051.

 

Vitamin D supplementation is increasingly being used in higher doses in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, adverse events from very large annual doses of vitamin D have been shown in 2 RCTs, whereas in a third RCT, low-dose vitamin D, with calcium supplements, was shown ...

Last Updated: 8 Sep 2016

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Ultrasonic propulsion of kidney stones.
 

Author(s): Philip C May, Michael R Bailey, Jonathan D Harper

Journal: Curr Opin Urol. 2016 May;26(3):264-70.

 

Ultrasonic propulsion is a novel technique that uses short bursts of focused ultrasonic pulses to reposition stones transcutaneously within the renal collecting system and ureter. The purpose of this review is to discuss the initial testing of effectiveness and safety, directions ...

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2016

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The exposome for kidney stones.
 

Author(s): David S Goldfarb

Journal: Urolithiasis. 2016 Feb;44(1):3-7.

 

The exposome is the assembly and measure of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime. An individual's exposures begin before birth and include insults from environmental and occupational sources. The associated field is called exposomics, which relies on the application of ...

Last Updated: 25 Jan 2016

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Swiss Kidney Stone Cohort (SKSC)
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Kidney Stone

 

Last Updated: 6 Oct 2015

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Monogenic Kidney Stone - Genetic Testing
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Rare Kidney Stone Diseases

 

Last Updated: 5 Oct 2017

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Pathophysiology of Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Uric Acid Kidney Stone Disease

 

Last Updated: 27 Oct 2016

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