Parkinson Disease

Common Name(s)

Parkinson Disease

Parkinson disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders. The four main symptoms are tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, or head; rigidity, or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; bradykinesia, or slowness of movement; and postural instability, or impaired balance. These symptoms usually begin gradually and worsen with time.  As they become more pronounced, patients may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks.  Not everyone with one or more of these symptoms has Parkinson disease, as the symptoms sometimes appear in other diseases as well.  Parkinson disease affects about 1 to 2 percent of people over the age of 60 years and the chance of developing Parkinson disease increases as we age. Although some Parkinson disease cases appear to be hereditary, and a few can be traced to specific genetic mutations, most cases are sporadic and occur in people with no apparent history of the disorder in their family.  Many researchers now believe that Parkinson disease results from a combination of genetic susceptibility and exposure to one or more environmental factors that trigger the disease.  
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Parkinson Disease" for support, advocacy or research.

American Parkinson Disease Association

As the country’s largest grassroots Parkinson’s disease organization, the American Parkinson Disease Association (APDA) improves the lives people with Parkinson’s disease and their families from coast to coast with patient/caregiver support; education and positive lifestyle programs; awareness, social and fundraising events; and scientific research funding at all levels. Through a national network of Chapters, Information & Referral Centers, more than 1,000 support groups, and eight Centers for Advanced Research, APDA delivers help for today and hope for tomorrow.

Last Updated: 23 Oct 2014

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Movement Disorder Society

The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is an international professional society of clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals, who are interested in Parkinson's disease, related neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and abnormalities in muscle tone and motor control.

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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National Endowment for Alzheimer's Research

At NEAR, our mission is to investigate the underlying causes of Alzheimer's and to develop rapid clinical interventions both for Alzheimer's and other brain disorders. A secondary mission is to promote public awareness and education with respect to Alzheimer's disease and related dementia, and to encourage the involvement of individuals, businesses, foundations, and government in finding a cure.

Last Updated: 20 Dec 2012

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National Parkinson Foundation

The National Parkinson Foundation is the only organization with a singular focus on improving the quality of Parkinson's care through research, education and outreach. We continue to bring help and hope to the estimated one million individuals in the US, four to six million worldwide, who are living with Parkinson's disease. NPF has funded more than $180 million in research and support services to improve the lives of people with PD. NPF programs touch more than one million people a year through our global network of Centers of Excellence, our US chapters, conferences, and online resources.

Last Updated: 23 Apr 2014

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Northwest Parkinson's Foundation

To establish optimal quality of life for the Northwest Parkinson's community through awareness, education, advocacy and care. The NWPF achieves our mission by supporting specialty care, producing and distributing free educational and support resources, raising awareness of Parkinson's disease and developing self-care tools that help improve the quality of life for patients, families and caregivers.

Last Updated: 20 Feb 2013

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Parkinson's Disease Foundation, Inc.

The Parkinson's Disease Foundation (PDF) is a leading national presence in Parkinson's disease research, education and public advocacy. PDF is working for the nearly one million people in the US living with Parkinson's by funding promising scientific research and supporting people with Parkinson's, their families and caregivers through educational programs and support services. As of 2012, PDF had dedicated over $96 million to fund the work of leading scientists throughout the world and over $40 million to support national education and advocacy initiatives.

Last Updated: 11 Jan 2013

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The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation was established in 1995 to find better treatments and cures for the movement disorders dystonia and Parkinson's disease and to provide medical and patient information.

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2013

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

Privately answer questions about your health. Let resources, you select, come to you.

Anonymously share and see how your answers compare with others with this condition while privately providing key pieces of information to medical researchers, disease advocacy groups, and others ONLY YOU select to help speed up cures and better alternatives.

 
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Parkinson Disease" for support, advocacy or research.

American Parkinson Disease Association

As the country’s largest grassroots Parkinson’s disease organization, the American Parkinson Disease Association (APDA) improves the lives people with Parkinson’s disease and their families from coast to coast with patient/caregiver support; education and positive lifestyle programs; awareness, social and fundraising events; and scientific research funding at all levels. Through a national network of Chapters, Information & Referral Centers, more than 1,000 support groups, and eight Centers for Advanced Research, APDA delivers help for today and hope for tomorrow.

http://www.apdaparkinson.org

Last Updated: 23 Oct 2014

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Movement Disorder Society

The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is an international professional society of clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals, who are interested in Parkinson's disease, related neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and abnormalities in muscle tone and motor control.

http://www.movementdisorders.org/MDS.htm

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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National Endowment for Alzheimer's Research

At NEAR, our mission is to investigate the underlying causes of Alzheimer's and to develop rapid clinical interventions both for Alzheimer's and other brain disorders. A secondary mission is to promote public awareness and education with respect to Alzheimer's disease and related dementia, and to encourage the involvement of individuals, businesses, foundations, and government in finding a cure.

http://www.memorymatters.org

Last Updated: 20 Dec 2012

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National Parkinson Foundation

The National Parkinson Foundation is the only organization with a singular focus on improving the quality of Parkinson's care through research, education and outreach. We continue to bring help and hope to the estimated one million individuals in the US, four to six million worldwide, who are living with Parkinson's disease. NPF has funded more than $180 million in research and support services to improve the lives of people with PD. NPF programs touch more than one million people a year through our global network of Centers of Excellence, our US chapters, conferences, and online resources.

http://parkinson.org

Last Updated: 23 Apr 2014

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Northwest Parkinson's Foundation

To establish optimal quality of life for the Northwest Parkinson's community through awareness, education, advocacy and care. The NWPF achieves our mission by supporting specialty care, producing and distributing free educational and support resources, raising awareness of Parkinson's disease and developing self-care tools that help improve the quality of life for patients, families and caregivers.

http://www.nwpf.org

Last Updated: 20 Feb 2013

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Parkinson's Disease Foundation, Inc.

The Parkinson's Disease Foundation (PDF) is a leading national presence in Parkinson's disease research, education and public advocacy. PDF is working for the nearly one million people in the US living with Parkinson's by funding promising scientific research and supporting people with Parkinson's, their families and caregivers through educational programs and support services. As of 2012, PDF had dedicated over $96 million to fund the work of leading scientists throughout the world and over $40 million to support national education and advocacy initiatives.

http://www.pdf.org

Last Updated: 11 Jan 2013

View Details
The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation was established in 1995 to find better treatments and cures for the movement disorders dystonia and Parkinson's disease and to provide medical and patient information.

https://www.dystonia-parkinson.org

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2013

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General Support Organizations

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General Resources

Online Wellness Center

A website designed to inspire people with Parkinson’s and their loved ones to make positive personal changes that contribute to living their best with a chronic disease.

Updated 4 Dec 2012

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Aware in Care

Aware in Care aims to help people with Parkinson’s disease get the best care possible during a hospital stay.

Updated 8 Apr 2014

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What You and Your Family Should Know

This book offers a basic overview of Parkinson’s disease. Topics include symptoms, diagnosis, parkinsonism, treatment options, putting your health team together, accepting and adapting to PD, and staying well.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Caring and Coping

Written for care partners of people with Parkinson’s, this book profiles caregiver roles and activities. Topics include what to expect, care options, activities of daily living, legal and financial planning and taking care of yourself as caregiver.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Fitness Counts

Exercise is important at any stage of Parkinson’s. This book describes exercise methods that contribute to stability and includes photos to demonstrate proper form.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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10 Early Warning Signs of Parkinson's Disease

This short brochure describes 10 symptoms that may be early signs of Parkinson’s disease. Each symptom of concern is listed along with what is "normal." If you have more than one symptom, you may want to visit your doctor.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Medications

This book describes both motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s and provides detailed information on common medications used to treat these symptoms.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Nutrition Matters

This book focuses on optimal nutrition for people with Parkinson’s and explains how PD affects the gastrointestinal system. It also offers tips and recipes to help manage non-motor symptoms and medication side effects.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Blogs

PDCommunity! Blog

NWPF staff answer your questions, share information and provide helpful links for quick access for all to benefit.

Updated 4 Dec 2012

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Parkinson Disease" returned 645 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Global investigation and meta-analysis of the C9orf72 (G4C2)n repeat in Parkinson disease.
 

Author(s): Jessie Theuns, Aline Verstraeten, Kristel Sleegers, Eline Wauters, Ilse Gijselinck, Stefanie Smolders, David Crosiers, Ellen Corsmit, Ellen Elinck, Manu Sharma, Rejko Krüger, Suzanne Lesage, Alexis Brice, Sun Ju Chung, Mi-Jung Kim, Young Jin Kim, Owen A Ross, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Zhengrui Xi, Anthony E Lang, Christine Klein, Anne Weissbach, George D Mellick, Peter A Silburn, Georgios M Hadjigeorgiou, Efthimios Dardiotis, Nobutaka Hattori, Kotaro Ogaki, Eng-King Tan, Yi Zhao, Jan Aasly, Enza Maria Valente, Simona Petrucci, Grazia Annesi, Aldo Quattrone, Carlo Ferrarese, Laura Brighina, Angela Deutschländer, Andreas Puschmann, Christer Nilsson, Gaëtan Garraux, Mark S LeDoux, Ronald F Pfeiffer, Magdalena Boczarska-Jedynak, Grzegorz Opala, Demetrius M Maraganore, Sebastiaan Engelborghs, Peter Paul De Deyn, Patrick Cras, Marc Cruts, Christine Van Broeckhoven,

Journal: Neurology. 2014 Nov;83(21):1906-13.

 

The objective of this study is to clarify the role of (G4C2)n expansions in the etiology of Parkinson disease (PD) in the worldwide multicenter Genetic Epidemiology of Parkinson's Disease (GEO-PD) cohort.

Last Updated: 18 Nov 2014

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Comorbidity and functional mobility in persons with Parkinson disease.
 

Author(s): Laurie A King, Kelsey C Priest, John Nutt, Yiyi Chen, Zunqiu Chen, Marsha Melnick, Fay Horak

Journal: Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2014 Nov;95(11):2152-7.

 

To report the frequency, severity, and types of comorbidities in people with Parkinson disease (PD) using a validated self-report comorbidity screening tool, and to determine the relationship between comorbidity and functional mobility.

Last Updated: 2 Dec 2014

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Potential pharmacological chaperones targeting cancer-associated MCL-1 and Parkinson disease-associated α-synuclein.
 

Author(s): Misook Oh, Ji Hoon Lee, Wei Wang, Hui Sun Lee, Woo Sirl Lee, Christopher Burlak, Wonpil Im, Quyen Q Hoang, Hyun-Suk Lim

Journal: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 2014 Jul;111(30):11007-12.

 

Pharmacological chaperones are small molecules that bind to proteins and stabilize them against thermal denaturation or proteolytic degradation, as well as assist or prevent certain protein-protein assemblies. These activities are being exploited for the development of treatments ...

Last Updated: 30 Jul 2014

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Parkinson Disease" returned 72 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Pathogenesis-targeted, disease-modifying therapies in Parkinson disease.
 

Author(s): Amaal AlDakheel, Lorraine V Kalia, Anthony E Lang

Journal: Neurotherapeutics. 2014 Jan;11(1):6-23.

 

Parkinson disease is an inexorably progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Multiple attempts have been made to establish therapies for Parkinson disease which provide neuroprotection or disease modification-two related, but not identical, concepts. However, to date, none of these ...

Last Updated: 23 Jan 2014

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Contribution of GTPase activity to LRRK2-associated Parkinson disease.
 

Author(s): Elpida Tsika, Darren J Moore

Journal: Small GTPases. ;4(3):164-70.

 

Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2, PARK8, OMIM 607060) gene represent the most common known cause of hereditary Parkinson's disease (PD) with late-onset and dominant inheritance. LRRK2 protein is composed of multiple domains including two distinct enzymatic domains, ...

Last Updated: 27 Mar 2014

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Alpha-synuclein post-translational modifications as potential biomarkers for Parkinson disease and other synucleinopathies.
 

Author(s): Adrien W Schmid, Bruno Fauvet, Marc Moniatte, Hilal A Lashuel

Journal: Mol. Cell Proteomics. 2013 Dec;12(12):3543-58.

 

The development of novel therapies against neurodegenerative disorders requires the ability to detect their early, presymptomatic manifestations in order to enable treatment before irreversible cellular damage occurs. Precocious signs indicative of neurodegeneration include characteristic ...

Last Updated: 9 Dec 2013

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Measure of Microglial Activation in the Brain of Parkinson Disease Patients With PET
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Parkinson's Disease With LRRK2 Mutation; Healthy Controls; Parkinson's Disease Without LRRK2 Mutation

 

Last Updated: 13 Dec 2014

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Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) on the Quality of Life and Non-Motor Symptoms (NMS) of Persons With Parkinson's Disease (PD)
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Parkinson's Disease; Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

 

Last Updated: 20 May 2013

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Whole-body Vibration as a Treatment for Parkinson's Disease
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease; Primary Parkinsonism

 

Last Updated: 13 Feb 2015

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