Parkinson disease

Common Name(s)

Parkinson disease

Parkinson disease (PD) is a movement disorder that causes trembling and shaking (tremors) of the hands, arms, legs, jaw, or head; stiffness of the arms, legs and core; slow movements (bradykinesia); and poor balance. PD is long lasting (chronic) and symptoms get worse with time (progressive). As symptoms progress they may interfere with daily activities. Other symptoms may include depression and other emotional problems; difficulty swallowing, chewing, and speaking; poor bladder control; and difficulty with sleeping.

PD typically develops around the age of 60 years. However, a small number of individuals have symptoms before 50 years (early onset PD). Most people with PD do not have a family history of the disease (sporadic PD). The exact cause of sporadic PD is not known, but it is believed to be due to a combination of environmental and genetic factors. Some cases of PD are inherited (run in the family) and changes (mutations) in 5 genes are known to be the cause of these cases. These genes include LRRK2, PARK2, PARK7, PINK1, and SNCA. PD caused by mutations in LRRK2 and SNCA is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, which means a mutation in only one gene copy is enough to cause PD; while PD caused by mutations in PARK2, PARK7, and PINK1 is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, which means a mutation in both copies of the gene are needed to cause PD.

PD is usually diagnosed by a doctor who is familiar with movement disorders, such as a neurologist, who can review medical history, signs, and symptoms as well as perform a physical and neurological exam. A doctor may also order brain imaging tests (CT or MRI) to help form a diagnosis. Currently there is no cure for PD, but treatments to help address the symptoms include both medications and therapies. If you have been diagnosed with PD, talk to your doctor about the current treatment options. Support groups can connect you with other families affected by PD.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Parkinson disease" for support, advocacy or research.

American Parkinson Disease Association

As the country’s largest grassroots Parkinson’s disease organization, the American Parkinson Disease Association (APDA) improves the lives people with Parkinson’s disease and their families from coast to coast with patient/caregiver support; education and positive lifestyle programs; awareness, social and fundraising events; and scientific research funding at all levels. Through a national network of Chapters, Information & Referral Centers, more than 1,000 support groups, and eight Centers for Advanced Research, APDA delivers help for today and hope for tomorrow.

Last Updated: 23 Oct 2014

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Movement Disorder Society

The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is an international professional society of clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals, who are interested in Parkinson's disease, related neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and abnormalities in muscle tone and motor control.

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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National Endowment for Alzheimer's Research

At NEAR, our mission is to investigate the underlying causes of Alzheimer's and to develop rapid clinical interventions both for Alzheimer's and other brain disorders. A secondary mission is to promote public awareness and education with respect to Alzheimer's disease and related dementia, and to encourage the involvement of individuals, businesses, foundations, and government in finding a cure.

Last Updated: 20 Dec 2012

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National Parkinson Foundation

The National Parkinson Foundation is the only organization with a singular focus on improving the quality of Parkinson's care through research, education and outreach. We continue to bring help and hope to the estimated one million individuals in the US, four to six million worldwide, who are living with Parkinson's disease. NPF has funded more than $180 million in research and support services to improve the lives of people with PD. NPF programs touch more than one million people a year through our global network of Centers of Excellence, our US chapters, conferences, and online resources.

Last Updated: 23 Apr 2014

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Northwest Parkinson's Foundation

To establish optimal quality of life for the Northwest Parkinson's community through awareness, education, advocacy and care. The NWPF achieves our mission by supporting specialty care, producing and distributing free educational and support resources, raising awareness of Parkinson's disease and developing self-care tools that help improve the quality of life for patients, families and caregivers.

Last Updated: 20 Feb 2013

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Parkinson's Disease Foundation, Inc.

The Parkinson's Disease Foundation (PDF) is a leading national presence in Parkinson's disease research, education and public advocacy. PDF is working for the nearly one million people in the US living with Parkinson's by funding promising scientific research and supporting people with Parkinson's, their families and caregivers through educational programs and support services. As of 2012, PDF had dedicated over $96 million to fund the work of leading scientists throughout the world and over $40 million to support national education and advocacy initiatives.

Last Updated: 11 Jan 2013

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The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation was established in 1995 to find better treatments and cures for the movement disorders dystonia and Parkinson's disease and to provide medical and patient information.

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2013

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The Michael J. Fox Foundation

The Michael J. Fox Foundation is dedicated to finding a cure for Parkinson's disease through an aggressively funded research agenda and to ensuring the development of improved therapies for those living with Parkinson's today.

Last Updated: 17 Apr 2015

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

Privately answer questions about your health. Let resources, you select, come to you.

Anonymously share and see how your answers compare with others with this condition while privately providing key pieces of information to medical researchers, disease advocacy groups, and others ONLY YOU select to help speed up cures and better alternatives.

 
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Parkinson disease" for support, advocacy or research.

American Parkinson Disease Association

As the country’s largest grassroots Parkinson’s disease organization, the American Parkinson Disease Association (APDA) improves the lives people with Parkinson’s disease and their families from coast to coast with patient/caregiver support; education and positive lifestyle programs; awareness, social and fundraising events; and scientific research funding at all levels. Through a national network of Chapters, Information & Referral Centers, more than 1,000 support groups, and eight Centers for Advanced Research, APDA delivers help for today and hope for tomorrow.

http://www.apdaparkinson.org

Last Updated: 23 Oct 2014

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Movement Disorder Society

The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is an international professional society of clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals, who are interested in Parkinson's disease, related neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and abnormalities in muscle tone and motor control.

http://www.movementdisorders.org/MDS.htm

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

View Details
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National Endowment for Alzheimer's Research

At NEAR, our mission is to investigate the underlying causes of Alzheimer's and to develop rapid clinical interventions both for Alzheimer's and other brain disorders. A secondary mission is to promote public awareness and education with respect to Alzheimer's disease and related dementia, and to encourage the involvement of individuals, businesses, foundations, and government in finding a cure.

http://www.memorymatters.org

Last Updated: 20 Dec 2012

View Details
National Parkinson Foundation

The National Parkinson Foundation is the only organization with a singular focus on improving the quality of Parkinson's care through research, education and outreach. We continue to bring help and hope to the estimated one million individuals in the US, four to six million worldwide, who are living with Parkinson's disease. NPF has funded more than $180 million in research and support services to improve the lives of people with PD. NPF programs touch more than one million people a year through our global network of Centers of Excellence, our US chapters, conferences, and online resources.

http://parkinson.org

Last Updated: 23 Apr 2014

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Northwest Parkinson's Foundation

To establish optimal quality of life for the Northwest Parkinson's community through awareness, education, advocacy and care. The NWPF achieves our mission by supporting specialty care, producing and distributing free educational and support resources, raising awareness of Parkinson's disease and developing self-care tools that help improve the quality of life for patients, families and caregivers.

http://www.nwpf.org

Last Updated: 20 Feb 2013

View Details
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Parkinson's Disease Foundation, Inc.

The Parkinson's Disease Foundation (PDF) is a leading national presence in Parkinson's disease research, education and public advocacy. PDF is working for the nearly one million people in the US living with Parkinson's by funding promising scientific research and supporting people with Parkinson's, their families and caregivers through educational programs and support services. As of 2012, PDF had dedicated over $96 million to fund the work of leading scientists throughout the world and over $40 million to support national education and advocacy initiatives.

http://www.pdf.org

Last Updated: 11 Jan 2013

View Details
The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation was established in 1995 to find better treatments and cures for the movement disorders dystonia and Parkinson's disease and to provide medical and patient information.

https://www.dystonia-parkinson.org

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2013

View Details
The Michael J. Fox Foundation

The Michael J. Fox Foundation is dedicated to finding a cure for Parkinson's disease through an aggressively funded research agenda and to ensuring the development of improved therapies for those living with Parkinson's today.

https://www.michaeljfox.org/

Last Updated: 17 Apr 2015

View Details

 

General Support Organizations

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General Resources

Online Wellness Center

A website designed to inspire people with Parkinson’s and their loved ones to make positive personal changes that contribute to living their best with a chronic disease.

Updated 4 Dec 2012

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Aware in Care

Aware in Care aims to help people with Parkinson’s disease get the best care possible during a hospital stay.

Updated 8 Apr 2014

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What You and Your Family Should Know

This book offers a basic overview of Parkinson’s disease. Topics include symptoms, diagnosis, parkinsonism, treatment options, putting your health team together, accepting and adapting to PD, and staying well.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Caring and Coping

Written for care partners of people with Parkinson’s, this book profiles caregiver roles and activities. Topics include what to expect, care options, activities of daily living, legal and financial planning and taking care of yourself as caregiver.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Fitness Counts

Exercise is important at any stage of Parkinson’s. This book describes exercise methods that contribute to stability and includes photos to demonstrate proper form.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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10 Early Warning Signs of Parkinson's Disease

This short brochure describes 10 symptoms that may be early signs of Parkinson’s disease. Each symptom of concern is listed along with what is "normal." If you have more than one symptom, you may want to visit your doctor.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Medications

This book describes both motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s and provides detailed information on common medications used to treat these symptoms.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Nutrition Matters

This book focuses on optimal nutrition for people with Parkinson’s and explains how PD affects the gastrointestinal system. It also offers tips and recipes to help manage non-motor symptoms and medication side effects.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Fox Trial Finder

Fox Trial Finder was created by the Michael J. Fox Foundation to help increase the flow of willing participants — both people with Parkinson’s and control participants who do not have Parkinson’s — into the clinical trials that need them, acceleratin

Updated 17 Apr 2015

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Third Thursday Webinars

On the third Thursday of each month, join our live webinars to learn about various aspects of living with PD and the Foundation's work to speed medical breakthroughs. These webinars are available for CME credit for practicing healthcare professionals

Updated 17 Apr 2015

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Blogs

PDCommunity! Blog

NWPF staff answer your questions, share information and provide helpful links for quick access for all to benefit.

Updated 4 Dec 2012

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Parkinson disease" returned 681 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Effect of creatine monohydrate on clinical progression in patients with Parkinson disease: a randomized clinical trial.
 

Author(s): , Karl Kieburtz, Barbara C Tilley, Jordan J Elm, Debra Babcock, Robert Hauser, G Webster Ross, Alicia H Augustine, Erika U Augustine, Michael J Aminoff, Ivan G Bodis-Wollner, James Boyd, Franca Cambi, Kelvin Chou, Chadwick W Christine, Michelle Cines, Nabila Dahodwala, Lorelei Derwent, Richard B Dewey, Katherine Hawthorne, David J Houghton, Cornelia Kamp, Maureen Leehey, Mark F Lew, Grace S Lin Liang, Sheng T Luo, Zoltan Mari, John C Morgan, Sotirios Parashos, Adriana Pérez, Helen Petrovitch, Suja Rajan, Sue Reichwein, Jessie Tatsuno Roth, Jay S Schneider, Kathleen M Shannon, David K Simon, Tanya Simuni, Carlos Singer, Lewis Sudarsky, Caroline M Tanner, Chizoba C Umeh, Karen Williams, Anne-Marie Wills

Journal: JAMA. 2015 Feb;313(6):584-93.

 

There are no treatments available to slow or prevent the progression of Parkinson disease, despite its global prevalence and significant health care burden. The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease program was established ...

Last Updated: 11 Feb 2015

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Exercise for falls prevention in Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial.
 

Author(s): Colleen G Canning, Catherine Sherrington, Stephen R Lord, Jacqueline C T Close, Stephane Heritier, Gillian Z Heller, Kirsten Howard, Natalie E Allen, Mark D Latt, Susan M Murray, Sandra D O'Rourke, Serene S Paul, Jooeun Song, Victor S C Fung

Journal: Neurology. 2015 Jan;84(3):304-12.

 

To determine whether falls can be prevented with minimally supervised exercise targeting potentially remediable fall risk factors, i.e., poor balance, reduced leg muscle strength, and freezing of gait, in people with Parkinson disease.

Last Updated: 20 Jan 2015

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Mutations in RAB39B cause X-linked intellectual disability and early-onset Parkinson disease with α-synuclein pathology.
 

Author(s): Gabrielle R Wilson, Joe C H Sim, Catriona McLean, Maila Giannandrea, Charles A Galea, Jessica R Riseley, Sarah E M Stephenson, Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, Stefan A Haas, Kate Pope, Kirk J Hogan, Ronald G Gregg, Catherine J Bromhead, David S Wargowski, Christopher H Lawrence, Paul A James, Andrew Churchyard, Yujing Gao, Dean G Phelan, Greta Gillies, Nicholas Salce, Lynn Stanford, Ashley P L Marsh, Maria L Mignogna, Susan J Hayflick, Richard J Leventer, Martin B Delatycki, George D Mellick, Vera M Kalscheuer, Patrizia D'Adamo, Melanie Bahlo, David J Amor, Paul J Lockhart

Journal: Am. J. Hum. Genet.. 2014 Dec;95(6):729-35.

 

Advances in understanding the etiology of Parkinson disease have been driven by the identification of causative mutations in families. Genetic analysis of an Australian family with three males displaying clinical features of early-onset parkinsonism and intellectual disability identified ...

Last Updated: 6 Dec 2014

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Parkinson disease" returned 80 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on motor symptoms in Parkinson disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
 

Author(s): Ying-hui Chou, Patrick T Hickey, Mark Sundman, Allen W Song, Nan-kuei Chen

Journal: JAMA Neurol. 2015 Apr;72(4):432-40.

 

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive neuromodulation technique that has been closely examined as a possible treatment for Parkinson disease (PD). However, results evaluating the effectiveness of rTMS in PD are mixed, mostly owing to low statistical ...

Last Updated: 14 Apr 2015

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Is there a risk of prion-like disease transmission by Alzheimer- or Parkinson-associated protein particles?
 

Author(s): Michael Beekes, Achim Thomzig, Walter J Schulz-Schaeffer, Reinhard Burger

Journal: Acta Neuropathol.. 2014 Oct;128(4):463-76.

 

The misfolding and aggregation of endogenous proteins in the central nervous system is a neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as prion diseases. A molecular mechanism referred to as "nucleation-dependent aggregation" is thought ...

Last Updated: 10 Sep 2014

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Glucocerebrosidase deficits in sporadic Parkinson disease.
 

Author(s): Karen E Murphy, Glenda M Halliday

Journal: Autophagy. 2014 Jul;10(7):1350-1.

 

Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized pathologically by abnormal SNCA/α-synuclein protein inclusions in neurons. Impaired lysosomal autophagic degradation of cellular proteins is implicated in PD pathogenesis and progression. Heterozygous ...

Last Updated: 3 Jul 2014

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Hereditary Parkinson s Disease Natural History Protocol
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Parkinson Disease 6, Early-Onset; Parkinson Disease (Autosomal Recessive, Early Onset) 7, Human; Parkinson Disease Autosomal Recessive, Early Onset; Parkinson Disease, Autosomal Recessive Early-Onset, Digenic, Pink1/Dj1

 

Last Updated: 28 Jul 2015

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Physiological Effects of Nutritional Support in Patients With Parkinson's Disease
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Parkinson Disease; Idiopathic Parkinson Disease

 

Last Updated: 15 May 2015

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Measure of Microglial Activation in the Brain of Parkinson Disease Patients With PET
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Parkinson's Disease With LRRK2 Mutation; Healthy Controls; Parkinson's Disease Without LRRK2 Mutation

 

Last Updated: 13 Jul 2015

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