Parkinson Disease

Common Name(s)

Parkinson Disease

Parkinson disease belongs to a group of conditions called movement disorders. The four main symptoms are tremor, or trembling in hands, arms, legs, jaw, or head; rigidity, or stiffness of the limbs and trunk; bradykinesia, or slowness of movement; and postural instability, or impaired balance. These symptoms usually begin gradually and worsen with time.  As they become more pronounced, patients may have difficulty walking, talking, or completing other simple tasks.  Not everyone with one or more of these symptoms has Parkinson disease, as the symptoms sometimes appear in other diseases as well.  Parkinson disease affects about 1 to 2 percent of people over the age of 60 years and the chance of developing Parkinson disease increases as we age. Although some Parkinson disease cases appear to be hereditary, and a few can be traced to specific genetic mutations, most cases are sporadic and occur in people with no apparent history of the disorder in their family.  Many researchers now believe that Parkinson disease results from a combination of genetic susceptibility and exposure to one or more environmental factors that trigger the disease.  
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Parkinson Disease" for support, advocacy or research.

Movement Disorder Society

The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is an international professional society of clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals, who are interested in Parkinson's disease, related neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and abnormalities in muscle tone and motor control.

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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National Endowment for Alzheimer's Research

At NEAR, our mission is to investigate the underlying causes of Alzheimer's and to develop rapid clinical interventions both for Alzheimer's and other brain disorders. A secondary mission is to promote public awareness and education with respect to Alzheimer's disease and related dementia, and to encourage the involvement of individuals, businesses, foundations, and government in finding a cure.

Last Updated: 20 Dec 2012

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National Parkinson Foundation

The National Parkinson Foundation is the only organization with a singular focus on improving the quality of Parkinson's care through research, education and outreach. We continue to bring help and hope to the estimated one million individuals in the US, four to six million worldwide, who are living with Parkinson's disease. NPF has funded more than $180 million in research and support services to improve the lives of people with PD. NPF programs touch more than one million people a year through our global network of Centers of Excellence, our US chapters, conferences, and online resources.

Last Updated: 23 Apr 2014

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Northwest Parkinson's Foundation

To establish optimal quality of life for the Northwest Parkinson's community through awareness, education, advocacy and care. The NWPF achieves our mission by supporting specialty care, producing and distributing free educational and support resources, raising awareness of Parkinson's disease and developing self-care tools that help improve the quality of life for patients, families and caregivers.

Last Updated: 20 Feb 2013

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Parkinson's Disease Foundation, Inc.

The Parkinson's Disease Foundation (PDF) is a leading national presence in Parkinson's disease research, education and public advocacy. PDF is working for the nearly one million people in the US living with Parkinson's by funding promising scientific research and supporting people with Parkinson's, their families and caregivers through educational programs and support services. As of 2012, PDF had dedicated over $96 million to fund the work of leading scientists throughout the world and over $40 million to support national education and advocacy initiatives.

Last Updated: 11 Jan 2013

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The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation was established in 1995 to find better treatments and cures for the movement disorders dystonia and Parkinson's disease and to provide medical and patient information.

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2013

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General Support Organizations

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How do you compare to others with this condition?

Privately answer questions about your health. Let resources, you select, come to you.

Anonymously share and see how your answers compare with others with this condition while privately providing key pieces of information to medical researchers, disease advocacy groups, and others ONLY YOU select to help speed up cures and better alternatives.

 
 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Parkinson Disease" for support, advocacy or research.

Movement Disorder Society

The Movement Disorder Society (MDS) is an international professional society of clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals, who are interested in Parkinson's disease, related neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, hyperkinetic movement disorders, and abnormalities in muscle tone and motor control.

http://www.movementdisorders.org/MDS.htm

Last Updated: 5 May 2014

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National Endowment for Alzheimer's Research

At NEAR, our mission is to investigate the underlying causes of Alzheimer's and to develop rapid clinical interventions both for Alzheimer's and other brain disorders. A secondary mission is to promote public awareness and education with respect to Alzheimer's disease and related dementia, and to encourage the involvement of individuals, businesses, foundations, and government in finding a cure.

http://www.memorymatters.org

Last Updated: 20 Dec 2012

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National Parkinson Foundation

The National Parkinson Foundation is the only organization with a singular focus on improving the quality of Parkinson's care through research, education and outreach. We continue to bring help and hope to the estimated one million individuals in the US, four to six million worldwide, who are living with Parkinson's disease. NPF has funded more than $180 million in research and support services to improve the lives of people with PD. NPF programs touch more than one million people a year through our global network of Centers of Excellence, our US chapters, conferences, and online resources.

http://parkinson.org

Last Updated: 23 Apr 2014

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Northwest Parkinson's Foundation

To establish optimal quality of life for the Northwest Parkinson's community through awareness, education, advocacy and care. The NWPF achieves our mission by supporting specialty care, producing and distributing free educational and support resources, raising awareness of Parkinson's disease and developing self-care tools that help improve the quality of life for patients, families and caregivers.

http://www.nwpf.org

Last Updated: 20 Feb 2013

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Parkinson's Disease Foundation, Inc.

The Parkinson's Disease Foundation (PDF) is a leading national presence in Parkinson's disease research, education and public advocacy. PDF is working for the nearly one million people in the US living with Parkinson's by funding promising scientific research and supporting people with Parkinson's, their families and caregivers through educational programs and support services. As of 2012, PDF had dedicated over $96 million to fund the work of leading scientists throughout the world and over $40 million to support national education and advocacy initiatives.

http://www.pdf.org

Last Updated: 11 Jan 2013

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The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation

The Bachmann-Strauss Dystonia & Parkinson Foundation was established in 1995 to find better treatments and cures for the movement disorders dystonia and Parkinson's disease and to provide medical and patient information.

https://www.dystonia-parkinson.org

Last Updated: 15 Feb 2013

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General Support Organizations

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General Resources

Online Wellness Center

A website designed to inspire people with Parkinson’s and their loved ones to make positive personal changes that contribute to living their best with a chronic disease.

Updated 4 Dec 2012

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Aware in Care

Aware in Care aims to help people with Parkinson’s disease get the best care possible during a hospital stay.

Updated 8 Apr 2014

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What You and Your Family Should Know

This book offers a basic overview of Parkinson’s disease. Topics include symptoms, diagnosis, parkinsonism, treatment options, putting your health team together, accepting and adapting to PD, and staying well.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Caring and Coping

Written for care partners of people with Parkinson’s, this book profiles caregiver roles and activities. Topics include what to expect, care options, activities of daily living, legal and financial planning and taking care of yourself as caregiver.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Fitness Counts

Exercise is important at any stage of Parkinson’s. This book describes exercise methods that contribute to stability and includes photos to demonstrate proper form.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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10 Early Warning Signs of Parkinson's Disease

This short brochure describes 10 symptoms that may be early signs of Parkinson’s disease. Each symptom of concern is listed along with what is "normal." If you have more than one symptom, you may want to visit your doctor.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Medications

This book describes both motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson’s and provides detailed information on common medications used to treat these symptoms.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Nutrition Matters

This book focuses on optimal nutrition for people with Parkinson’s and explains how PD affects the gastrointestinal system. It also offers tips and recipes to help manage non-motor symptoms and medication side effects.

Updated 23 Apr 2014

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Blogs

PDCommunity! Blog

NWPF staff answer your questions, share information and provide helpful links for quick access for all to benefit.

Updated 4 Dec 2012

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Parkinson Disease" returned 607 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Genome-wide RNAi screen identifies the Parkinson disease GWAS risk locus SREBF1 as a regulator of mitophagy.
 

Author(s): Rachael M Ivatt, Alvaro Sanchez-Martinez, Vinay K Godena, Stephen Brown, Elena Ziviani, Alexander J Whitworth

Journal: Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.. 2014 Jun;111(23):8494-9.

 

Genetic analysis of Parkinson disease (PD) has identified several genes whose mutation causes inherited parkinsonism, as well as risk loci for sporadic PD. PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, linked to autosomal recessive PD, act in a common genetic pathway regulating the autophagic ...

Last Updated: 14 Jun 2014

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The acute brain response to levodopa heralds dyskinesias in Parkinson disease.
 

Author(s): Damian M Herz, Brian N Haagensen, Mark S Christensen, Kristoffer H Madsen, James B Rowe, Annemette Løkkegaard, Hartwig R Siebner

Journal: Ann. Neurol.. 2014 Jun;75(6):829-36.

 

In Parkinson disease (PD), long-term treatment with the dopamine precursor levodopa gradually induces involuntary "dyskinesia" movements. The neural mechanisms underlying the emergence of levodopa-induced dyskinesias in vivo are still poorly understood. Here, we applied functional ...

Last Updated: 1 Jul 2014

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Measuring disease progression in early Parkinson disease: the National Institutes of Health Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease (NET-PD) experience.
 

Author(s): Sotirios A Parashos, Sheng Luo, Kevin M Biglan, Ivan Bodis-Wollner, Bo He, Grace S Liang, G Webster Ross, Barbara C Tilley, Lisa M Shulman,

Journal: JAMA Neurol. 2014 Jun;71(6):710-6.

 

Optimizing assessments of rate of progression in Parkinson disease (PD) is important in designing clinical trials, especially of potential disease-modifying agents.

Last Updated: 10 Jun 2014

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Parkinson Disease" returned 75 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Review: electrophysiology of basal ganglia and cortex in models of Parkinson disease.
 

Author(s): Damien J Ellens, Daniel K Leventhal

Journal: J Parkinsons Dis. 2013 Jan;3(3):241-54.

 

Incomplete understanding of the systems-level pathophysiology of Parkinson Disease (PD) remains a significant barrier to improving its treatment. Substantial progress has been made, however, due to the availability of neurotoxins that selectively target monoaminergic (in particular, ...

Last Updated: 12 Sep 2013

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Surgical treatment of Parkinson disease: past, present, and future.
 

Author(s): Andrew P Duker, Alberto J Espay

Journal: Neurol Clin. 2013 Aug;31(3):799-808.

 

Advances in functional neurosurgery have expanded the treatment of Parkinson disease (PD) to targeted electrical stimulation of specific nodes in the basal ganglia circuitry. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), applied to selected patients and difficult-to-manage motor fluctuations, yields ...

Last Updated: 30 Jul 2013

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Recent developments in biomarkers in Parkinson disease.
 

Author(s): Anthony H V Schapira

Journal: Curr. Opin. Neurol.. 2013 Aug;26(4):395-400.

 

Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer disease, and current demographic trends indicate a life-time risk approaching 4% and predict a doubling of prevalence by 2030. Strategies are being developed to apply recent advances in our understanding ...

Last Updated: 4 Jul 2013

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Mindfulness Based Intervention (MBI) on the Quality of Life and Non-Motor Symptoms (NMS) of Persons With Parkinson's Disease (PD)
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Parkinson's Disease; Non-Motor Symptoms of Parkinson's Disease

 

Last Updated: 20 May 2013

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Biomarkers of Risk of Parkinson Disease
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Parkinson Disease; Autonomic Nervous System Diseases; Pure Autonomic Failure

 

Last Updated: 12 Jul 2014

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Evaluation of Safety and Tolerability of Fetal Mesencephalic Dopamine Neuronal Precursor Cells for Parkinson's Disease
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Idiopathic Parkinson Disease; Primary Parkinsonism

 

Last Updated: 21 May 2013

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