Postpartum depression

Common Name(s)

Postpartum depression

Postpartum depression is a severe form of depression that some new mothers may experience after childbirth. Symptoms include crying and sadness, loss of appetite, insomnia, intense irritability and anger, overwhelming fatigue, lack of joy in life, feelings of shame, difficulty bonding with your baby, withdrawal from family and friends and thoughts of harming yourself or your baby. In very severe cases, the mother may experience hallucinations. Signs and symptoms of postpartum depression usually develop within the first four weeks following childbirth but may develop anytime within the first year. Recent studies have shown that 50% of the time, postpartum depression actually begins during the pregnancy. The cause is not known. Hormonal and physical changes after birth and the stress of caring for a new baby may play a role. A family or personal history of depression, anxiety or postpartum depression increases a woman’s risk of developing postpartum depression. Women who have diabetes or a thyroid imbalance, gone through infertility treatments, delivered multiples or prematurely, or had complications during pregnancy are also at an increased risk.

It is important to talk to seek help if you or a family member is experiencing signs of postpartum depression. If hallucinations or thoughts of self harm or harming the baby occur, seek immediate medical attention. Treatment is available. Postpartum depression can be treated with counseling and medications, such as antidepressants, and hormone therapy treatments. With the right treatment, postpartum depression may resolve in as little as one to two months. Talk with your doctor or midwife to decide the treatment options which will work best for you. Support groups are also a good source of up to date information and can help connect you with others affected by postpartum depression. See also depression.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Postpartum depression" for support, advocacy or research.

National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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General Support Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Postpartum depression" for support, advocacy or research.

National Alliance on Mental Illness

NAMI is the National Alliance on Mental Illness, the nation's largest grassroots mental health organization dedicated to building better lives for the millions of Americans affected by mental illness. NAMI, NAMI State Organizations and hundreds of local NAMI Affiliates advocate for access to services, treatment, supports and research and are committed to raising awareness and building a community of hope for all of those in need.

http://www.nami.org

Last Updated: 6 Apr 2015

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Postpartum depression" returned 292 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Changes in maternal self-efficacy, postnatal depression symptoms and social support among Chinese primiparous women during the initial postpartum period: A longitudinal study.
 

Author(s): Xujuan Zheng, Jane Morrell, Kim Watts

Journal: Midwifery. 2018 Jul;62():151-160.

 

There are many parenting problems during infancy for Chinese primiparous women. As an important determinant of good parenting, maternal self-efficacy (MSE) should be paid more attention by researchers. At present, the limitations of previous research examining MSE during infancy are ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Coping strategies of women with postpartum depression symptoms in rural Ethiopia: a cross-sectional community study.
 

Author(s): Telake Azale, Abebaw Fekadu, Girmay Medhin, Charlotte Hanlon

Journal:

 

Most women with postpartum depression (PPD) in low- and middle-income countries remain undiagnosed and untreated, despite evidence for adverse effects on the woman and her child. The aim of this study was to identify the coping strategies used by women with PPD symptoms in rural Ethiopia ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Screening for maternal postpartum depression and associationswith personality traits and social support. A Polish follow-upstudy 4 weeks and 3 months after delivery.
 

Author(s): Karolina Maliszewska, Małgorzata Świątkowska-Freund, Mariola Bidzan, Preis Krzysztof

Journal: Psychiatr. Pol.. 2017 Oct;51(5):889-898.

 

To investigate the likelihood of postpartum depression and to explore maternal characteristics in terms of personality, social support and other medical and psychological data.

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Postpartum depression" returned 55 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Vitamin D Deficiency and Antenatal and Postpartum Depression: A Systematic Review.
 

Author(s): Fariba Aghajafari, Nicole Letourneau, Newsha Mahinpey, Nela Cosic, Gerald Giesbrecht

Journal:

 

Vitamin D has been implicated in antenatal depression (AD) and postpartum depression (PPD) in many studies; however, results have been inconsistent due to the complexity of this association. We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and Maternity and Infant Care databases for literature ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Screening and diagnosing postpartum depression: when and how?
 

Author(s): Gustavo Paranhos de Albuquerque Moraes, Laura Lorenzo, Gabriela Arruda Reinaux Pontes, Maria Cristina Montenegro, Amaury Cantilino

Journal: Trends Psychiatry Psychother. ;39(1):54-61.

 

Prevalence rates of postpartum depression (PPD) vary widely, depending on the methodological parameters used in studies: differences in study populations, diagnostic methods, and postpartum time frame. There is also no consensus on the ideal time to perform screening, on whether PPD ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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The Neurobiology of Postpartum Anxiety and Depression.
 

Author(s): Jodi L Pawluski, Joseph S Lonstein, Alison S Fleming

Journal: Trends Neurosci.. 2017 02;40(2):106-120.

 

Ten to twenty percent of postpartum women experience anxiety or depressive disorders, which can have detrimental effects on the mother, child, and family. Little is known about the neural correlates of these affective disorders when they occur in mothers, but they do have unique neural ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

PREPP: Preventing Postpartum Depression
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Postpartum Depression

 

Last Updated: 25 Jan 2018

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Accelerated iTBS for Post Partum Depression
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Post Partum Depression

 

Last Updated: 30 Jan 2018

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Last Updated: 17 Oct 2018

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