Smallpox

Common Name(s)

Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by the variola viruses. The virus was present in the small blood vessels of the skin, mouth, and throat. Variola major caused a more aggressive disease while variola minor's smallpox was less dangerous. Smallpox produced a rash and then raised fluid-filled blisters on the skin as the disease progressed. The mortality rate for variola major was approximately 30-60% in all people, and 80% in children. Variola minor only caused deaths in 1% of its hosts. The World Health Organization officially eradicated smallpox in 1977 after a massive vaccine campaign. This means that the variola virus is no longer present in the world. Smallpox is one of only two diseases to be completely eradicated.

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Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Smallpox" for support, advocacy or research.

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Smallpox" returned 623 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Immunogenicity and safety of three consecutive production lots of the non replicating smallpox vaccine MVA: A randomised, double blind, placebo controlled phase III trial.
 

Author(s): Edgar Turner Overton, Steven J Lawrence, Eva Wagner, Katrin Nopora, Siegfried Rösch, Philip Young, Darja Schmidt, Christian Kreusel, Sonja De Carli, Thomas P Meyer, Heinz Weidenthaler, Nathaly Samy, Paul Chaplin

Journal:

 

Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a live, viral vaccine under advanced development as a non-replicating smallpox vaccine. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial was conducted to demonstrate the humoral immunogenic equivalence of three consecutively ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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An Early American Smallpox Vaccine Based on Horsepox.
 

Author(s): Livia Schrick, Simon H Tausch, P Wojciech Dabrowski, Clarissa R Damaso, José Esparza, Andreas Nitsche

Journal: N. Engl. J. Med.. 2017 10;377(15):1491-1492.

 

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Characterization of Two Historic Smallpox Specimens from a Czech Museum.
 

Author(s): Petr Pajer, Jiri Dresler, Hana Kabíckova, Libor Písa, Pavel Aganov, Karel Fucik, Daniel Elleder, Tomas Hron, Vitezslav Kuzelka, Petr Velemínsky, Jana Klimentova, Alena Fucikova, Jaroslav Pejchal, Rita Hrabakova, Vladimir Benes, Tobias Rausch, Pavel Dundr, Alexander Pilin, Radomir Cabala, Martin Hubalek, Jan Stríbrny, Markus H Antwerpen, Hermann Meyer

Journal:

 

Although smallpox has been known for centuries, the oldest available variola virus strains were isolated in the early 1940s. At that time, large regions of the world were already smallpox-free. Therefore, genetic information of these strains can represent only the very last fraction ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Smallpox" returned 52 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Improving the Care and Treatment of Monkeypox Patients in Low-Resource Settings: Applying Evidence from Contemporary Biomedical and Smallpox Biodefense Research.
 

Author(s): Mary G Reynolds, Andrea M McCollum, Beatrice Nguete, Robert Shongo Lushima, Brett W Petersen

Journal:

 

Monkeypox is a smallpox-like illness that can be accompanied by a range of significant medical complications. To date there are no standard or optimized guidelines for the clinical management of monkeypox (MPX) patients, particularly in low-resource settings. Consequently, patients ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Equination (inoculation of horsepox): An early alternative to vaccination (inoculation of cowpox) and the potential role of horsepox virus in the origin of the smallpox vaccine.
 

Author(s): José Esparza, Livia Schrick, Clarissa R Damaso, Andreas Nitsche

Journal: Vaccine. 2017 12;35(52):7222-7230.

 

For almost 150 years after Edward Jenner had published the "Inquiry" in 1798, it was generally assumed that the cowpox virus was the vaccine against smallpox. It was not until 1939 when it was shown that vaccinia, the smallpox vaccine virus, was serologically related but different ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Defending against smallpox: a focus on vaccines.
 

Author(s): Emily A Voigt, Richard B Kennedy, Gregory A Poland

Journal: Expert Rev Vaccines. 2016 09;15(9):1197-211.

 

Smallpox has shaped human history, from the earliest human civilizations well into the 20th century. With high mortality rates, rapid transmission, and serious long-term effects on survivors, smallpox was a much-feared disease. The eradication of smallpox represents an unprecedented ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

VA-008 ACAM2000® Vaccination of Plasma Donors for the Production of VIGIV
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Smallpox Vaccine Adverse Reaction

 

Last Updated: 14 Feb 2018

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Tecovirimat (ST-246) Treatment for Orthopox Virus Exposure
 

Status: Available

Condition Summary: Smallpox; Monkeypox

 

Last Updated: 14 Aug 2018

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Last Updated: 27 Feb 2017

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