Swine influenza

Common Name(s)

Swine influenza, Swine flu

Swine Flu is an infection caused by one of many types of viruses that typically affect pigs. Though swine flu viruses are not typically passed (transmitted) from pigs to humans, humans can sometimes become infected. If a person is infected with a swine flu virus, they are very contagious (can infect other humans easily) and can be for up to 10 days after they are first infected. There are many types of swine flu viruses, but the most common form seen in humans is called H1N1. Symptoms of swine flu in humans are similar to symptoms seen in other flu virus infections and may include fever, coughing, runny nose, lack of appetite, sore throat, lethargy, diarrhea and vomiting.

Unlike other flu viruses, which typically infect young children and the elderly, swine flu often infects young adults. Risk factors for swine flu include a compromised (weak) immune system and pregnancy. Though the virus circulates throughout the year, most outbreaks occur during the fall and winter months. Human to human transmission of the virus often occurs through the spread of mucus and saliva particles by sneezing, coughing, or touching a germ-covered surface.

Diagnosis of swine flu is made by examining a patient and conducting a swab of the patient’s nose and throat to identify whether the infection is caused by a swine flu virus. To prevent a swine flu infection you should wash your hands often, avoid touching your nose and eyes, and avoid exposure to people who are infected by the virus. Immunizations for common types of the swine flu virus can reduce the chance of infection. Once a person is infected, treatment of swine flu generally includes medications that relieve symptoms. If you have been diagnosed with swine flu, talk with your doctor about the latest treatment options.

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Swine influenza" for support, advocacy or research.

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Swine influenza" returned 340 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Substitution of D701N in the PB2 protein could enhance the viral replication and pathogenicity of Eurasian avian-like H1N1 swine influenza viruses.
 

Author(s): Suli Liu, Wenfei Zhu, Zhaomin Feng, Rongbao Gao, Junfeng Guo, Xiyan Li, Jia Liu, Dayan Wang, Yuelong Shu

Journal:

 

Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (EA H1N1) swine influenza viruses (SIVs) have become predominant in pig populations in China and have recently been reported to have the most potential to raise the next pandemic in humans. The mutation D701N in the PB2 protein, which accounts for 31% of H1N1 ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Effect of Priming With Seasonal Influenza A(H3N2) Virus on the Prevalence of Cross-Reactive Hemagglutination-Inhibition Antibodies to Swine-Origin A(H3N2) Variants.
 

Author(s): Feng Liu, Vic Veguilla, F Liaini Gross, Eric Gillis, Thomas Rowe, Xiyan Xu, Terrence M Tumpey, Jacqueline M Katz, Min Z Levine, Xiuhua Lu

Journal: J. Infect. Dis.. 2017 Sep;216(suppl_4):S539-S547.

 

Recent outbreaks of swine-origin influenza A(H3N2) variant (H3N2v) viruses have raised public health concerns. Previous studies indicated that older children and young adults had the highest levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibodies to 2010-2011 H3N2v viruses. However, ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Influenza A(H3N2) Virus in Swine at Agricultural Fairs and Transmission to Humans, Michigan and Ohio, USA, 2016.
 

Author(s): Andrew S Bowman, Rasna R Walia, Jacqueline M Nolting, Amy L Vincent, Mary Lea Killian, Michele M Zentkovich, Joshua N Lorbach, Sarah E Lauterbach, Tavis K Anderson, C Todd Davis, Natosha Zanders, Joyce Jones, Yunho Jang, Brian Lynch, Marisela R Rodriguez, Lenee Blanton, Stephen E Lindstrom, David E Wentworth, John Schiltz, James J Averill, Tony Forshey

Journal: Emerging Infect. Dis.. 2017 09;23(9):1551-1555.

 

In 2016, a total of 18 human infections with influenza A(H3N2) virus occurred after exposure to influenza-infected swine at 7 agricultural fairs. Sixteen of these cases were the result of infection by a reassorted virus with increasing prevalence among US swine containing a hemagglutinin ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Swine influenza" returned 17 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Epidemiological features of influenza circulation in swine populations: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
 

Author(s): Eugénie Baudon, Marisa Peyre, Malik Peiris, Benjamin John Cowling

Journal:

 

The emergence of the 2009 influenza pandemic virus with a swine origin stressed the importance of improving influenza surveillance in swine populations. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to describe epidemiological features of swine influenza (SI) across ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Harnessing Local Immunity for an Effective Universal Swine Influenza Vaccine.
 

Author(s): Elma Tchilian, Barbara Holzer

Journal:

 

Influenza A virus infections are a global health threat to humans and are endemic in pigs, contributing to decreased weight gain and suboptimal reproductive performance. Pigs are also a source of new viruses of mixed swine, avian, and human origin, potentially capable of initiating ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Acute appendicitis in a child with swine influenza (H1N1).
 

Author(s): Christos Plataras, Sotiria Tsangouri, Dimitrios Bourikas, Efstratios Christianakis

Journal:

 

Swine flu is a multisystemic disease and can affect the gastrointestinal system. There are only three published reports of swine flu cases with acute appendicitis; two of them in children under 16 years of age. We present an unusual case of acute appendicitis in a child already ...

Last Updated: 31 Dec 1969

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

Last Updated: 8 Aug 2018

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Exploring Safety & Clinical Benefit of Anti-Influenza Immunoglobulin Intravenous in Hospitalized Adults With Influenza A
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Influenza A H3N2; Influenza A H1N1

 

Last Updated: 18 Jun 2018

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Zoonotic Influenza Infections of Swine Origin at Ohio Agricultural Fairs
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Influenza

 

Last Updated: 8 Aug 2018

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