Vancomycin-resistant enterococci

Common Name(s)

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci, VRE, Enterococcus species resistant to vancomycin

VRE (Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus) is an infection caused by the bacteria Enterococcus which has become resistant to treatment with vancomycin, an antibiotic commonly used to treat this type of infection. Enterococcus is a type of bacteria that is normally found in human intestines (gut) and the female genital tract and is also often found in the environment without causing disease. When it becomes resistant to vancomycin, it is then called vancomycin resistant Enterococcus or VRE. VRE can be present in an individual but not cause symptoms, this is often called colonization of the bacteria. Sometimes however, the VRE bacteria can cause a variety of infections in the urinary tract, the bloodstream or in open wounds on the skin. VRE is spread by simple skin to skin contact or by touching surfaces contaminated with the bacteria. Most VRE infections spread this way in hospitals. VRE cannot be spread through the air by coughing or sneezing. People at risk for VRE infections include those who have been previously treated with vancomycin or have had other long term antibiotic use, people with weakened immune systems especially in the hospital setting, surgical patients, or people with urinary catheters or intravenous tubing placed (IV) as these allow an opening for the bacteria to enter the body.

To avoid the spread of VRE, wash hands frequently and hospital workers or care givers should wear gown and gloves when treating an infected person. Individuals with colonized bacteria (no symptoms) do not need to be treated. Most VRE infections can be treated with antibiotics other than vancomycin. Lab tests can determine which antibiotics may work best. If you think you may have VRE or may have been exposed, speak with your doctor. If you have been diagnosed with VRE, talk with your doctor or specialist about the most current treatment options.

Source: Advocacy organizations associated with the condition.

 

Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

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Advocacy and Support Organizations

 

Condition Specific Organizations

Following organizations serve the condition "Vancomycin-resistant enterococci" for support, advocacy or research.

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General Support Organizations

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Scientific Literature

Articles from the PubMed Database

Research articles describe the outcome of a single study. They are the published results of original research.
The terms "Vancomycin-resistant enterococci" returned 206 free, full-text research articles on human participants. First 3 results:

A novel bacteriocin from Enterococcus faecalis 478 exhibits a potent activity against vancomycin-resistant enterococci.
 

Author(s): Uraporn Phumisantiphong, Kanokrat Siripanichgon, Onrapak Reamtong, Pornphan Diraphat

Journal:

 

The emergence of multidrug-resistant enterococci (MDRE) and particularly vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is considered a serious health problem worldwide, causing the need for new antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to discover and characterize bacteriocin against clinical ...

Last Updated: 12 Oct 2017

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Genetic characteristics and molecular epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci isolates from Caribbean countries.
 

Author(s): Patrick Eberechi Akpaka, Shivnarine Kissoon, Padman Jayaratne, Clyde Wilson, George R Golding, Alison M Nicholson, Delores B Lewis, Sandra M Hermelijn, Alexis Wilson-Pearson, Ashley Smith

Journal:

 

Emergence of vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) that first appeared on the stage about three decades ago is now a major concern worldwide as it has globally reached every continent. Our aim was to simply undertake a multinational study to delineate the resistance and virulence ...

Last Updated: 11 Oct 2017

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Evaluation of a matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry assisted, selective broth method to screen for vancomycin-resistant enterococci in patients at high risk.
 

Author(s): Tsi-Shu Huang, Susan Shin-Jung Lee, Chia-Chien Lee, Chiu-Yen Chen, Fang-Chen Chen, Bao-Chen Chen, Cheng Len Sy, Kuan-Sheng Wu

Journal:

 

Bile esculin azide with vancomycin (BEAV) medium is a sensitive, but slightly less specific method for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) screening. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid method for identification ...

Last Updated: 13 Jun 2017

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Reviews from the PubMed Database

Review articles summarize what is currently known about a disease. They discuss research previously published by others.
The terms "Vancomycin-resistant enterococci" returned 13 free, full-text review articles on human participants. First 3 results:

Daptomycin for the treatment of bacteraemia due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci.
 

Author(s): Jose M Munita, Barbara E Murray, Cesar A Arias

Journal: Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents. 2014 Nov;44(5):387-95.

 

Treatment of severe infections caused by vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) is challenging due to the scarcity of reliable therapeutic alternatives. In this context, daptomycin (DAP), a lipopeptide antibiotic, has emerged as an interesting alternative as it is one of the few compounds ...

Last Updated: 2 Dec 2014

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Central nervous system infections due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci: case series and review of the literature.
 

Author(s): Jeffrey S Wang, Katie Muzevich, Michael B Edmond, Gonzalo Bearman, Michael P Stevens

Journal: Int. J. Infect. Dis.. 2014 Aug;25():26-31.

 

To evaluate reported cases of central nervous system (CNS) infections due to vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and describe the data necessary to better understand clinical characteristics of this rare disease process.

Last Updated: 23 Jul 2014

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Vancomycin resistant enterococci healthcare associated infections.
 

Author(s): G B Orsi, V Ciorba

Journal: Ann Ig. ;25(6):485-92.

 

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are among the most common healthcare associated multidrug-resistant organisms. Purpose of the article was to review recent data regarding the epidemiology, clinical issues and infection control of this organisms.

Last Updated: 28 Nov 2013

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Clinical Trial Information This information is provided by ClinicalTrials.gov

A Trial of Encapsulated Fecal Microbiota for Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus Decolonization
 

Status: Not yet recruiting

Condition Summary: Antibiotic Resistant Strain

 

Last Updated: 21 Feb 2017

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Antibiotic Stewardship and Infection Control in Patients at High Risk of Developing Infection by Clostridium Difficile, Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci or Multi-Resistant Gram-Negatives
 

Status: Recruiting

Condition Summary: Clostridium Difficile Infection; VRE Infection; Nosocomial Infection; MRGN Bacteria

 

Last Updated: 14 Aug 2017

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Last Updated: 13 Sep 2017

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