Congenital Deafness is the presence of partial or total deafness, or the inability to hear, at birth. It occurs in 1 out of every 1,000 to 2,000 births. It can either be caused by genetic or environmental factors during the pregnancy. Children with congenital hearing loss or deafness can be diagnosed soon after birth by newborn hearing screening. Otherwise, children are typically diagnosed by hearing tests later in life. Management of the condition varies, but can often include hearing aid devices. Early detection and management is important to prevent speech and language difficulties later in life. Many children will need speech therapy, or need to use sign language to communicate. Depending on the type and cause of deafness, surgery may also be an option for treatment.